Home About J.Carter Questions and Answers Store Contact Us

The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

Introduction to the Principle of Circlon Synchronicity

By James Carter

The fundamental assumption of Circlon Synchronicity is that protons and electrons exist permanently in the universe and that they are exactly what we measure them to be.

The Principle of Circlon Synchronicity is not a Theory

There are many different theories that have been used to explain the nature of reality. Today, the most popular of these are quantum mechanics, special relativity, string theories, general relativity and the Big Bang. Such theories all begin with unmeasured metaphysical assumptions such as fields and forces to explain the measurements of various phenomena. Circlon synchronicity is a purely mechanical system that explains local physical measurements. You only need a theory to explain physical measurements in terms of non-local fields, forces and dimensions.

Circlon Synchronicity is a description of matter that is illustrated by eternal multi-layered circlon shaped particles called protons and electrons. You don’t need a theory to explain the existence of protons and electrons. They are the substance of reality and are the most basic things that we can measure. They are what we are made of. These mass particles interact with one another through physical contact with the various layers of their circlon shapes. This is a completely mechanical interaction occurring in both three dimensions of time and three dimensions of empty space without any fields, space-time or extra dimensions. Circlon synchronicity makes seven basic departures from the standard model theories of physics and the Big Bang. The principle of Circlon Synchronicity is basically an opposite anti-theory to the standard theories of special relativity, general relativity and quantum mechanics. Circlon Synchronicity is based on the physical principles of measurement whereas the standard models are just theories based on unreasoned and unmeasurable metaphysical assumptions.

The photon is not a theory. The photon is a mechanical measurement of mass. The photon is a conjoined matter-antimatter pair that is the basic form of mass and energy in the Living Universe. All photons move at exactly the speed of light relative to one another within the same absolute space. Photons are produced when a proton and electron are joined together to form a hydrogen atom. The emission of a photon is a mini annihilation with part of the electron and part of the proton being carried away by the photon. A photon with mass and size eliminates the need for both Planck’s constant and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and also completely changes the meaning of the equation E=MC2. This is not a theory of a photon. It is the measurements describing the nature of the photon.

Gravity is the third dimension of time. Gravity is something that is very easy to explain because it is something that we all feel and are very familiar with. We all instinctively know and feel what gravity does. In every physical action that we take, we are constantly sensing the upward force of gravity. Our sense of balance is how we feel gravity. Why must we forsake our senses and try to believe the Harvard physicists when they say that the force of gravity points down. We both feel as well as measure gravity to be an upward acceleration of Earth’s surface caused by the constant expansion of Earth’s matter. Gravity is just a simple mechanical motion within the structure of matter and it has nothing at all to do with any attractions, fields, gravitational potentials or extra dimensions other than gravity’s third dimension of time.

We do not need a theory of gravity to explain exactly how it works. Gravity is a simple measurement that plainly shows exactly what gravity does. We use accelerometers to measure force and they exactly show that gravity is just an upwardly pointing force caused by the physical expansion of the Earth. The gravitational expansion of matter does not require a theory. It is just the physical measurement of gravity that shows exactly how it works in a completely mechanical way without any fields or non-local interactions. You only need a theory to explain a non-local and even infinite idea of how gravity works in such a way that it can’t be directly measured. Gravity not a theory.

The Living Universe is a system of physical principles and measurement for the interaction of mass, space, time and gravity in the evolution of matter since a point in time that was well before the big bang. Circlon synchronicity is the alternative way of explaining the body of experimental measurements and observation that has come to be called the standard models of physics and the Big Bang. The matter in the cosmos today is absolute. Today’s atoms ultimately resulted from an era of neutron reproduction in the early stages of the Living Universe. The whole evolution of matter and life itself is driven by the gradual decrease in the mass of the electron. This increase in the proton/electron mass ratio changes the values of atomic “constants” like the Bohr Radius and the Fine Structure Constant. These changes cause the photon spectra of atoms to increase in energy over the course of cosmological time. It is these gradual changes in atomic spectra that is responsible for the ideas of dark energy and the Hubble red shift.

The Periodic Table of the Circlon Elements is a full color chart that has a model of the most common isotope of each of 112 known elements. These models are constructed from measurements made of the nuclear structures of the elements. In the nuclear structure of the elements, Palladium and Gold have a measurable difference in their inner electron shells from those predicted by Quantum Mechanics.

The Evolution of the Living Universe is Not a Theory

Big Bang theory explains the creation of universe in terms of field interactions, space-time and as many as a dozen dimensions. It begins with the assumption of a magical singularity of pure energy that is able to produce matter without producing antimatter.

The Living Universe makes no assumptions for any such major violations of the laws of physics. It make no assumptions for any unmeasured or unreasoned phenomena such as fields, aether, massless waves, exotic particles or multiple dimensions. The evolution is based on the known and measured properties of photons, electrons, protons, neutrons and atoms. The nearest thing to an assumption is the slow barely measurable decrease in the mass of the electron over cosmological time. Using this very small effect to guide its evolution, the Living Universe transformed itself from a single atom of antihydrogen at its beginning into the beings that are reading this page today.

Each individual step in matter’s evolution was controlled by this transformation in the electrons/proton mass ratio. Near the beginning, a single antihydrogen atom captured its positron and was transformed to an antineutron. Then, much later, the neutron was transformed into a proton-antiproton pair that immediately bifurcated into 2256 neutrons. These stable neutrons then spread out into the void of space for billions of years. Eventually, due the dynamics of circlon nuclear structure, these neutrons all began to decay at the same time. This soon filled the Living Universe with energetic electrons and protons that soon combined to form atoms of hydrogen and nuclei of other elements. All of these newly formed atoms began radiating the photons of the 2.7° Cosmic Blackbody Radiation that fills the Living Universe today. By using the circlon shape as a template for the shape and structure of the electron and proton, it is possible to show that the 2.7° CBR was produced when the proton/electron mass ratio was 146/1 and that its temperature was then the same 2.7°K that it is today. As the mass of the electron grew smaller, it transformed the process by which atoms absorbed and emitted photons. As the atoms evolved through decrease in electron mass, they produced photons with shorter wavelengths and higher temperatures compared with the 2.7° at their beginning. As these atoms spread out within the universe they became separated into stars and galaxies. The increasing photon energy made the light from distant galaxies appear red shifted compared to the shorter wavelengths produced by the our sun today. This is the Hubble red shift that is caused by the decrease in size and the increase in energy of the atom rather than the loss of non-conserved photon energy and momentum into the an expanding space-time of the universe. The universe is expanding from the inside out and not from the outside in.

The Nature of the Photon is not a Theory

A sceptic must be particularly doubtful of the massless photon concept. All of the measurements that we make of the photon’s nature most logically indicate a photon with mass. A photon’s basic parameters of energy, momentum, angular momentum, emission and absorption all have a formula containing mass. The massless photon concept comes not from experimental measurement but from metaphysical assumptions adopted at the foundations of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. The massless photon is only a theory but a photon with mass is a physical measurement. We can only imagine a massless photon but we can measure a photon with the mass of M=E/C2.

Experimental physics is essentially constructed upon the nature of the photon. Physics begins and ends with the reality of the photon. Everything we know of in the universe, that can be observed and measured, can be explained in terms of the interaction of the appropriate photons. You don’t need a theory to describe the nature of the photon. The nature of the photon is an absolute set of parameters determined by measurements. These measurements can all be interpreted to determine and measure the mass of a photon.

A universe where the photon has mass is both the same and very different from a universe with a massless photon. The measurements and calculations that we make are the same. What does change is the way that we must look at matter. E=MC2 takes its true form as the mass of the photon M = E/C2. The photon is not “pure energy” but a form of matter just like protons and electrons. With both mass and energy, the photon becomes the basic form of mass in the Living Universe. Like the energy of a bullet, a photon’s energy is divided into two parts. Half of its energy is contained in the spin of its mass and the other half is contained in the motion of its mass at C through space. An electron or proton’s energy is contained within the rotational motions of the spinning mass coils of their circlon structure. Within atoms and photons, mass and energy maintain a constant relationship and one is never converted into the other.

A photon with mass can no longer be thought of as a point particle because its mass must be distributed along its wavelength. With internal rotational energy that must have a radius, protons and electrons can also no longer be thought of as points. Without the point particle, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle changes it meaning. Instead of an inability to locate a particle’s point position, we can exactly locate its volume.

Give the photon mass and Planck’s constant is longer a fundamental constant but a combination of two constants h=M λC. When matter and antimatter are annihilated, the photons have the same mass as the original particles.

A photon with mass does not just disappear when it is absorbed by an atom. It can not transfer its mass to the atom and then disappear as it does with quantum electrodynamics. An absorbed photon with mass must maintain its identity as a component part of the atom until it can be re-emitted. Once formed, a photon with mass is basically eternal. It can change its parameters as it flits in and out of atoms but it can not be destroyed. It will always have its equal share of mass and energy whether it is flying through space or stuck inside of an atom. A photon with mass does not really change the basic mathematical structure used to quantify physical experiments. What does change is the way that we can imagine the reality beyond the mathematical structure. Instead of points, matter becomes the shapes of what was formally called its fields.

If we construct a concept of the photon based solely on the vast amount of experimental data establishing its nature, rather than trying to pour it in a preconceived mold, we find that we have a photon that is quite different from the one generated by the assumptions of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. The primary difference is that an absolute photon with mass requires that all photons move at C relative to the same inertial reference frame. The ultimate experimental example of this is the vast number of photons that make up the 2.7° Cosmic Background Radiation.

Both their extremely even directional distribution and their precise blackbody curve should convince anyone that the CBR photons are all moving with absolute motion at exactly C relative to one another within the same inertial reference frame. The fact that they are blue shifted in the direction of Leo and red shifted in the opposite direction seems to be quite conclusive proof that our solar system is moving through this absolute photon reference frame at approximately 375 km/sec. Since perhaps 99% of the photons in the universe are CBR photons, it would seem quite unlikely that the other photons produced by stars or by us here on earth could move at C within different reference frames.

Gravity is not a Theory

Be skeptical of all gravitation theories. Theories of gravitation are not necessary because gravitation can not be measured and therefore does not exist. Gravity is just a measurement of a small local motion within the structure of atoms. The force of an atom’s gravity does not extend beyond its outer structure. Gravitational expansion is the true meaning of the equivalence principle.

The Principle of Gravitational Expansion it not a theory of gravitation nor is it an assumption or a hypothesis or even a postulate. It is a description of gravity derived from the physical measurements that we make of gravity. You don’t need a theory to explain how gravity works. You just need a mental picture of gravity doing what you measure it do. There is no mystery to gravity. It is simply what it appears to be. Gravity is just upward motion of the Earth’s surface.

All you need to explain gravity is Newton’s Law of Force. (F=MA) Force equals Mass times Acceleration. By definition, the basic component of force is its direction in space. The two parameters of force are the magnitude of the acceleration and the time over which it occurs. The result of a force on a mass is a change in its momentum vector. Measurements of force, mass, acceleration and momentum are the most basic measurements that an experimental physicist can make. There can be no ambiguity in these results. The validity of these measurements provides the standards for all of the rest of experimental physics. The direction of gravity’s force is measured to be up. Instead of just imaging a downward direction of gravitation as we have always done, why not just follow the upward direction of the gravity measurements to see where they lead? To see where gravity is going you must look up and not down.

Gravitational expansion is not a theory but a description of physical measurements. To have a theory for gravitation you must first have a basic assumption by which to interpret your anomalous experimental results. We do not need to assume that matter is expanding gravitationally when we can just measure it doing so. Gravitational expansion is a conclusion. Physical measurements are the opposite of assumptions. Measurements replace assumptions with conclusions. You would need a theory to explain why matter expands but not to just know that it does expand. The most basic measurement that we can make of gravity reveals it to be an upward acceleration. The only possible physical result of this upward acceleration at its surface must be the constant physical expansion of the Earth. Based on this measured knowledge of expanding matter, all gravity measurements can be explained in simple mechanical terms without the infinite fields of gravitational theories.

Gravitational Expansion is the antithesis of general relativity but their only real mechanical difference is the direction in which gravity points. In Einstein’s theory, gravity is a postulated downward force caused by continual changes in space and time and with gravitational expansion, gravity is a measured upward force caused by continual changes in matter and time. The mathematical structure of general relativity becomes the mathematical structure of gravitational expansion simply by changing the direction of gravity from down to up within the equations. Gravity is still described as changes in space and time, but in gravitational expansion it is the space and time driven by matter and not the so called space-time attached to infinity.

The Pound-Rebka experiment and the GPS clock calibration measurements are easily explained as measurements of the upward direction of gravity. In the Pound-Rebka experiment, the wavelengths of photons are Doppler shifted by the differences in gravitational velocity between the top and bottom of the tower. The GPS clock adjustments result from the Lorentz Transformation of the combined upward momentum vectors of both a satellite’s outward orbital velocity and its upward expansion velocity. These same results can also be calculated by gravitational theories, but only by first making the unverifiable metaphysical assumption of numerous curved space-times of infinite reach called gravitational potentials.

The most widely observed large scale phenomenon that demonstrates the expansion of the Earth’s surface is the way that atmospheric clouds layers become segmented into smaller and smaller individual clouds as they are stretched out by the expanding surface beneath them. Everyone has seen these stretch marks in the sky. This effect is the natural course for gravitational expansion but there seems to be nothing in the gravitational theories that could account for this segmenting of cloud layers. This same expansion effect segments large dust clouds into stars and galaxies far more efficiently than gravitational theories.

With gravitational expansion, gravity is measured to be a slow and local expansion in physical dimension that occurs simultaneously within the inner workings of each atom of matter. This extremely small, local and independent atomic effect can only be easily measured at the surfaces of large groups of atoms like the Earth. By contrast, the parameters of the gravitational theories are supposed to extend all the way to infinity but can not be altered or even measured.

A skeptic could not be doubtful about the simple local measurements of gravity. The sceptic must take the high ground of experimental measurement when judging a theory. Why not be skeptical of the infinite and unmeasured gravitational theories? You can have all the emotional reasons you want for not liking the idea of gravitational expansion but you will find it verified by any experimental measurements that you can make.

Circlon Nuclear Structure is not a Theory

A sceptic need not doubt these models of circlon nuclear structure because they are not theories. Each model is a consecutive pattern of symmetrical structure that is much more a mathematical system than a theory. Circlon nuclear structure is basically a mathematical equation with separate equations for each individual isotope. These equations represent the common structure of matter guided by the experimental measurements that have been made for each individual isotope.

The many nuclear models on this chart are constructed around a large number of nuclear experiments that measured the atomic weight, abundance, stability, and decay energies of some 2000 different atomic isotopes. Other than a few simple intuitive rules to guide their mechanical structure, there are no assumptions made in the construction of each isotope. A mechanical circlon shape is assumed for the proton, neutron and meson but there are many experimental measurements to show that these particles have circular shapes.

Circlon nuclear structure is not really in conflict with quantum mechanics because quantum mechanics doesn’t offer a specific structural arrangement for the protons and neutrons within the nucleus. Quantum mechanics is a theory and circlon nuclear structure is just a mathematical system. However, theory and system do have a point of departure at the element Rhodium. With Palladium and beyond, there is a significant difference between the commonly accepted theory of electron shell configuration and the naturally occurring circlon structure of electron shells. The experimental techniques needed to differentiate between these two electron shell models are quite complex but this difference does supply an excellent way by which circlon nuclear structure could be falsified.

The Periodic Table of Circlon Nuclear Structure is just a mathematical system with a series of equations representing the several isotopes of each element. This system is not a theory and cannot be falsified except by another system that could produce different but equivalent and more symmetrical models. Once the first few isotopes are constructed, all the rest of the isotopes just construct themselves from the system. This model of nuclear structure is 100% experimental fact and 0% atomic theory. This is a mechanical system and not a theory. A theory would have to assume some kind of a strong force field to hold the nuclei together instead of the simple basically nut and bolt assembly of circlon nuclear structure. You don’t need a theory to know what holds a nut and bolt together. It is simple engineering.

Back to top

Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.