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The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

Gravitational Expansion Orbits

The Force of Gravity’s True Direction

Even though everyone can easily understand how it works, the concept that gravity is caused by the expansion of matter seems to be extremely difficult for anyone to believe. How can the Earth as well as each one of our bodies continue to constantly expand their dimensions gravitationally? The answer is simply that for gravity to work in the way that we measure it to be working, matter would have to expand in just the way that it does.

Actually, no one has ever been able to find any concrete physical reason why complementary gravitational changes in the values of mass, space and time could not occur. Mass, space and time can all change their values in such a way that these changes are not readily detectable except by measuring the upward acceleration of gravity. The upward force of gravity is a measurable physical phenomenon and there are no other detectable phenomena that can be used to contradict it as a true force of nature that produces absolute motion through space. In fact, all of the objections that anyone could make about gravitational expansion are not physical but rather psychological, philosophical or esthetic.

Before Newton started telling people that he thought it pointed down, everyone already knew that the force of gravity pointed up. Everyone could easily feel the upward push of gravity with their own sense of balance. Galileo, in fact, proved that gravity pointed up with his experiments rolling balls down inclines and by dropping different sized bullets from the Pisa tower. However, since he was just measuring gravity and didn’t really have a theory about its cause, he didn’t realize the significance of his measured direction for gravity’s force.

If Galileo had realized what he had found, the great mystery of gravity might have been solved four hundred years ago. The church might have burned him at the stake, but on the other hand, they may have liked the idea. At first, gravitational expansion might seem like a complex and improbable way to make gravity work but in the eyes of the church such a system of gravity would certainly not be too difficult for God to make work. The church might have been able to use it as an example of God’s omnipotence. Whether the church embraced the idea or declared it to be the work of the devil, gravitational expansion would have been out there for subsequent scientists to test and confirm.

When Newton started creating calculations to describe the effects of gravity, he found that if he reversed the direction in which gravity pointed in his equations, he could then calculate that this hypothetical downward force could be used to pull the planets into orbits around the Sun. Newton’s idea of reversed gravitational force changed the force of gravity from a push that everyone could feel into a pull that we could only imagine. Even though it didn’t have any basis in experimental fact, Newton’s attraction theory of gravity worked beautifully for describing orbits with just a few simple equations. Soon his idea that gravity was a pull and not a push became an almost intuitive concept that nearly everyone could believe in, even though neither Newton nor anyone else had any idea of how this magical and infinite attractive force could actually work. Galileo’s experiments were soon forgotten and from then on, everyone came to firmly believe that gravity pointed down, regardless of the opposite direction that each person felt with their sense of balance.

By the time that Einstein started thinking about gravity, he had already come to believe in his concept of relative motion. With general relativity, he chose to make the direction of gravity relative. Einstein believed that gravity was a relative change in motion and used geometry to calculate a curvature for space-time that could exactly reverse the measured direction of gravity from up to down. Einstein was so stuck in his ways that he never appears to have even considered the possibility that the direction of gravity might actually point up.

Gravity is Not a Theory

Before we go any further in this discussion, it must be understood that Newton’s idea of gravitational attraction and Einstein’s idea for a gravitational field are both metaphysical theories of gravity. These are both mathematical descriptions of interactions between matter that have no underlying mechanisms that can be directly detected by experimental measurement. In contrast, gravitational expansion is not a theory of gravity but rather a principle of gravitational expansion derived not from assumptions but from direct physical measurement.

Compared to general relativity, gravitational expansion is easy to visualize and the upward acceleration of the earth’s surface is easily measured with an accelerometer. By contrast, in general relativity the curvature of space-time can not be visualized and no experiment has ever been proposed that could measure the postulated downward acceleration of falling bodies.

Gravitational expansion is a completely non-field explanation of gravity. It is a principle for the force of gravity in which no fields are assumed. Since gravitation has always been considered to be the ultimate example of a field interaction, what does this say about the other forms of so called “field” interactions? If gravity can be described without a field, then all of the other interactions might also be local mechanical structures that do not require any fields either. Fields have always been imaginary mathematical stru

Curved Matter-Time

The first thing that one must realize when contemplating gravitational theories is that the only real difference between the principle of gravitational expansion and the theory of general relativity is just one of perspective. Each idea can be viewed as the mirror image of the other. The only real difference in the structural dynamics between gravitational expansion and general relativity is in the direction in which gravity points. The force of gravity is measured to be pointing up in gravitational expansion and postulated to be pointing down by general relativity.

Both gravitational expansion and general relativity have a direct structural relationship with the Principle for the Equivalence of gravity and inertia. The difference is that in general relativity, equivalence is a metaphysical assumption used to invalidate the measurement process and in gravitational expansion, equivalence is not an assumption at all but a conclusion drawn from the scientific method of measurement. In general relativity, inertial motion and the gravitational field are made to be equivalent because of the proposed structure of the curved space-time continuum. In gravitational expansion, gravity and inertia are not considered to be equivalent because they are exactly the same thing. There is only the upward inertial acceleration of gravity and the gravitational field doesn’t exist.

The four dimensional non-Euclidian geometry that Einstein used to explain the gravitational dynamics of curved space-time would work equally well to explain the dynamics of the gravitational expansion of matter-time. All that would be needed is to reverse the direction that the force of gravity points in the equations.

Both are mechanical systems that explain gravity in terms of changing geometry. General relativity postulates gravity in terms of curving space-time and gravitational expansion measures gravity to be the dynamic curving of matter-time. The space that curves with expansion is the space within the dynamic structure of matter. The inertial space of the universal void of infinity remains perfectly flat and unchanged. In general relativity, a substance combined from space and time curves inward around bodies of mass. Mass is not effected by this curving space-time and remains inert and dimensionally flat.

Angular Momentum

When contemplating the dynamics of orbital revolution, most people tend to think of orbits in terms of one and two dimensional relative motions instead of the three dimensional absolute motions of gravitational expansion. The difference between relative motion and absolute motion is angular momentum. There is no angular momentum contained in the relative motion between two bodies.

Angular momentum is an imaginary but absolute parameter of motion. It is the conserved relationship between the absolute motions of two bodies of mass. Each body in the universe has an exact and absolute momentum vector. The combination of the momentum vectors of any two bodies is their angular momentum. Each body has an exact quantity of angular momentum relative to every other body. The angular momentum between any two freely moving bodies remains conserved whether they are rotating about one another or traveling separately through space. The angular momentum shared by all bodies is just an idea and has no physical consequences until two or more bodies become physically attached. Their angular momentum then becomes relevant as an absolute component and parameter of a body’s rotation. The angular momentum of orbiting bodies remains constant throughout their orbits, regardless of what gravity system is used in their description or calculation.

The Cannonball Orbit

What the relativists usually fail to realize about orbital motion is that it is a three dimensional absolute motion instead of a two dimensional relative motion. Relativists try to describe orbits first with a one-dimensional relative motion and then add a calculated second unseen curved dimension of mathematical motion. It is this unmeasured curved motion of the gravitational field that makes an orbit into a circle. Gravitational expansion doesn’t need any such clever multi-dimensional mathematical concepts to explain how gravity works because it is just simple mechanical motion revealed by experiment.

The mechanics of orbital revolution as it is explained by the principle of gravitational expansion is much easier to understand and visualize in the mind’s eye than it is in general relativity because expansion is a measured mechanical property of a body of mass rather than the case of a body of mass being connected to the vast unseen mosaic of a dynamically curving four-dimensional space-time continuum.

cannonball

While it is easy to visualize matter expanding outward into empty and inert space, it is all but impossible to imagine the curvature of something as intangible as a four-dimensional space-time continuum. For example, consider a cannon being fired at a distant target. We seem to see the cannonball follow a curved path, known as a parabola, as it goes high above the earth and then comes down at a stationary target. However, if we set our intuitions aside and carefully measure the flight of the cannonball with accelerometers, we find that, disregarding air resistance, it undergoes no changes in motion as it travels at a constant velocity and in the straight line of its momentum vector from the time it leaves the cannon until it collides with the target. If we measure the effect of air resistance, we find that this straight line path curves upward slightly as the upwardly rising atmosphere pushes up on the cannonball. Accelerometer measurements made at the target clearly show the Earth’s surface being accelerated upward as it overtook the rising cannonball. In spite of our accurate measurements of the cannonball’s straight inertial path, we still see that it appears to continually curve toward the ground. This is clear proof that what can be measured to be a straight inertial path will appear to be a curved spiral or even a circle when viewed relative to the gravitational expansion of matter.

To demonstrate how gravitational expansion causes orbital paths to become curved into imaginary circles, we will consider a series of cannonballs that are fired with increasingly greater muzzle velocities so that they will travel farther and farther over the Earth’s surface before “falling” to the ground. The ultimate shot would be a cannonball that was fired horizontally from the top of Mt. Everest with a muzzle velocity of 7,905 m/sec. Were it not for the air resistance at 39,000 feet, this cannonball would form a circular orbit around the Earth. While the atmosphere prevents such low level orbits here on Earth, cannon fired near-surface orbits would be possible on the moon.

chained spacestationAnother way to illustrate how an orbit can be formed around a gravitationally expanding Earth, would be to consider a frictionless speed boat traveling around the world at a high velocity. This boat can be considered to be in an earth orbit even though it is traveling at less than orbital velocity and is still floating on the ocean. Without friction, it will continue to circle the globe indefinitely just like a real orbit. The boat would weigh considerably less than it did at rest due to its centrifugal acceleration from speeding around the earth. If we were to increase the boat’s speed to 7905 m/sec, it would be at the orbital velocity for sea level and its upward centrifugal acceleration would just balance the upward acceleration of gravity. The boat would lift above the sea and form a sea level orbit. In the absence of friction, the boat will now continue to travel around the earth in a straight inertial path just like the cannonball but it will also appear in any photographs to be moving around the Earth in a circle.

 

How Gravity Works

A Newtonian-like physical demonstration of gravity would use the concept of infinite and indestructible anti-springs that connect all bodies of mass. Unlike a real spring, a stretched gravitational anti-spring gets weaker and weaker as it is stretched out and gets stronger and stronger as it compresses. For the purpose of demonstration we can think of a single anti-spring between Earth and the satellite but in order represent gravity as Newton conceived it, there would have to be an anti-spring between each particle of mass within both bodies.

In a circular orbit, the gravitational anti-spring is at a constant equilibrium length. In the case of a geosynchronous orbit, the spring will hold the satellite directly above a point on the equator. If we replace the spring with a chain, we can then extend the height of the geosynchronous orbit as far as we wish because the increasing centrifugal acceleration will hold up the weight of the chain. Such a chain would allow astronauts to climb a ladder into space and save on rocket fuel. However, such a ladder would not supply energy-free trips up into space. Every time an astronaut climbed up into the satellite, its angular momentum would be decreased and addition energy would have to be supplied to the satellite to maintain its orbit. While the anti-spring concept is only found in Newtonian gravitation, the concept of a chained satellite above the geosynchronous orbit is common to all gravity theories and principles.

It is simply not possible to show a physical experiment that would demonstrate Einstein’s mechanism of gravitational space-time or give his explanation of the physical way in which orbits work. The problem is that neither Einstein nor any of his followers ever did give a physical explanation of orbits. The mathematics of general relativity simply can not be represented by physical models. Einstein’s idea of gravitation interacts through a mathematical interface that represents an enormous number of gravitational interactions between dynamically curving fields. It is difficult enough just to comprehend an absolute space. To attempt to imagine a relative space that is curving is completely beyond any principle of mechanical reasoning and must be done with the imaginary concept of multidimensional math.

Using Newton’s model of gravity it is easy to design an experiment that shows how his idea of gravity works. We can use the hypothetical idea of the anti-spring to show a small body revolving around a large body. In our experimental setup we can demonstrate a circular orbit with the tension of an ordinary spring. However, we cannot duplicate an elliptical orbit because this can only done with an anti-spring that gets weaker as it is stretched out. It would be possible to create a digital mechanism that could mimic the tensions of an anti-spring and in this would allow a physical demonstration of a Newtonian orbit.

With Einstein’s idea, it is far more difficult to design a physical mechanism to demonstrate how his version of gravity works. His explanation is in the form of complex equations that magically cause unseen gravitational fields to curve around matter and tie themselves into metaphorical knots. A crude example of moving space attracting a body would be a baseball being sucked against a bathtub drain. To demonstrate an orbit, relativists often use the imperfect example of a ball revolving in a funnel shaped depression. While this model might seem on the surface to be a valid demonstration of an Einstein orbit, the actual physics involved in this apparatus are quite the opposite of the gravity that he proposed.

For an experimental demonstration of gravitational expansion, we need no hypothetical anti-springs nor any metaphysical fields or forces that cannot be represented by actual physical experiments. The interactions of gravitationally expanding matter can be explained completely with the simple equations of Newton’s three laws of motion. The experiments used are simple and local mechanical configurations that measure such things as force, acceleration, velocity and direction and distance in space. The easiest way to demonstrate a gravitationally expanding orbit is with the same ball revolving in a funnel. This is still not a perfect example of an orbit but at least the measured forces causing the action are pointing in the right direction.

The Painted Balloon Experiment

The segmenting of atmospheric clouds is perhaps the most commonly observed example of a scaling phenomenon caused by the Earth’s gravitational expansion. The painted balloon experiment is an excellent way to demonstrate this cloud segmentation phenomenon in which gravity plays no part in the demonstration. A partially inflated balloon is spray painted and allowed to dry. Then, the balloon is inflated to its full size. As the balloon expands, the paint begins to crack into similar sized segments on different levels of scale. When actual photos of atmospheric cloud stretching are compared with the painted balloon, there is a remarkable correlation between the segmenting patterns in each.

painted clouds

While the cloud segmenting phenomenon is a naturally occurring physical consequence of gravitational expansion, there seems to be no reason for this effect to occur within the dynamics of either Newtonian gravity or general relativity. Gravitation attraction itself is not strong enough to pull the individual clouds together and curving space could not segment the clouds because individual water droplets must remain imbedded in the curving space-time.

Although we can’t easily experiment with clouds, we can demonstrate a similar process by spray painting a partially inflated balloon. Once the paint has dried and the balloon is then fully inflated, the paint will crack into segments that form patterns almost identical to the segmenting commonly observed in atmospheric clouds. These stretch marks in the sky offer dramatic proof that the surface of the earth is constantly expanding in all directions beneath the cloud layer.

Einstein’s curved space-time theory of gravity is clearly unable to create segmented clouds. In most cases, the mathematical equations describing curved space-time are identical to those describing the “curved matter-time” of gravitational expansion. However, this is one case where the predicted dynamics of the two theories are different. In general relativity, it is the space within the cloud that is curving and moving and there is no requirement that any of the droplets to undergo any inertial movement.

In the principle of gravitational expansion, it is matter that is curving and moving through inertial space. With the surface of the earth moving sideways beneath the cloud with real inertial motion, all of the droplets must be moved one way or another in the process and segmented into smaller and smaller groups. Gravitational expansion inflates the balloon and stretches the paint. In General Relativity, it is the “curving” paint that inflates the balloon.

The Orbiting Chain

To demonstrate an orbit around the earth, we will first use an experiment that would have been available even in Galileo’s time. A powerful cannon is fired over the surface of the Earth and the path of the cannonball is recorded. The cannon is then again fired from the point where the first cannonball struck. This process continues until the cannonball has traveled completely around the earth. In each shot, the cannonball traveled in a straight line until it was struck by the upwardly moving earth. However, any photos of the cannonball’s path would show it to follow a parabolic curve. In this digital orbit of the Earth, the cannonball always travels in a straight inertial line but at the same time its path always appears to curve downward. This apparent non-inertial curvature of the Earth’s internal space results from the expanding dimensions of matter.

orbiting Chains

The orbiting chain is another possible model for creating an orbit around an expanding Earth. The chain is wrapped around the Earth and then spun to a high velocity. As the chain goes faster and faster it will tighten up and go into an Earth orbit defined by its length. The faster the chain is spun beyond its orbital velocity the tighter it will become due to its increasing centrifugal acceleration.

To better understand how orbits work around gravitationally expanding bodies of matter, we can cause the chain to slow down until its centrifugal acceleration becomes less than the acceleration of gravity. The individual links will becomes slack and lose their tension with one another. The slack chain as a whole still maintains its overall orbit while each loosely connected link maintains its own individual orbit. The dynamics of this orbiting chain satellite are the same whether we use the mechanics of gravitational expansion or the field theories of Newton and Einstein.

The Fourth Vector

While the visualization of orbital revolution may seem difficult with gravitational expansion, it is all but impossible with general relativity. Einstein described orbiting bodies as moving in straight inertial lines. These lines appear to be curved when passing through the four-dimensional space-time continuum. While both forms of gravity defy visualization at some level, the mechanism of gravitational expansion can be plainly understood while the way that general relativity really works remains a mystery.

Relativity

A satellite moving in a circular orbit, around a gravitationally expanding Earth moves away from the Earth along what can be called a fourth vector of gravitational motion. This vector is the combination of the satellite’s orbital velocity and expansion velocity that are at right angles to one another. This motion constantly moves the satellite away from the earth at the same rate that the unperceived expansion of the earth’s surface moves toward it. The satellite moves away from the earth through inertial space at the same time that the earth’s surface follows it through the space attached to gravitationally expanding matter. We think of a satellite as moving around the Earth but in strict inertial terms it is more accurate to say that within the Earth’s expanding gravitational space, the Earth moves around the inertial space of the satellite.

In the cannonball orbit, the paths of the first few cannonballs are easily rationalized from apparent curves to actual straight lines, this task becomes increasingly difficult as they travel farther around the earth. At the point where an orbit is reached, the mind might have great difficulty converting its vision of the cannonball’s straight inertial path into a circular orbit. The reason that the mind has such great difficulty with this counter-intuitive process is that dimensionally, gravitational expansion occurs along a fourth vector of nonlinear motion. This fourth vector does not occur within the imaginary three-dimensional Euclidean void that is common to the perceptions of our five senses. It is as if gravitationally expanding orbits not only occur behind our backs but are only barely visible to the mind’s eye.

With both the fourth dimension of general relativity and the fourth vector of gravitational expansion, the curvature of orbits occurs without any changes in motion as would be detected by accelerations. With general relativity, gravity appears as a vast and intimate physical connection between all particles of matter in the universe. With gravitational expansion the measured upward force of gravity results from an upward three dimensional velocity at the outer surface of each atom. In the case of the hydrogen atom, gravity is the very slow upward velocity at its Bohr radius of .00000000000009212 m/sec.

At this velocity it would take about 3.5 million years for the surface of a hydrogen atom to move a distance of one meter. The source of the upward velocity of gravity that we feel here at the Earth’s surface is the result of countless Bohr radius velocities being stacked on top of each other all the way to the center of the earth. The total sum of their velocities is equal to the upward sea level surface velocity (escape velocity) of 11,179 m/sec.

On the human scale of time it might seem like 11 km/sec is way too fast for the world to expand. We must realize the this expansion is actually happening at the time scale of atoms and at their scale gravity happens very slowly. Consider a Cesium-135 clock at a time scale where each tick of the was a second. Were we to watch that clock with its hand spinning every second we would gave to wait (9,192,631,770 x 1139/31,557,600) = 331,787 years to see the dimensions of the cesium atom double in size and the rate of the clock to slow to one-half.

 

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Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.