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The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

THE LIVING UNIVERSE

The Living Universe is a story about the evolution of the reality that we call the universe. The Living Universe uses the same evidence and phenomena as the Big Bang theory but it is interpreted in opposite ways to produce a picture of the universe without the many paradoxes and violations of physical law inherent in the Big Bang theory.

The Living Universe is an alternative model to the Big Bang theory based on experimental principles and measurements instead of the Big Bang’s many metaphysical assumptions.

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of the ordinary matter formed from electrons and protons. These reproductive and evolutionary processes are described with the experimental principle of Circlon Synchronicity.

Protons and electrons did not just magically arrive in the universe via a colossal collision of space and time called the big bang. In the Living Universe, at least one Hydrogen atom has always existed. It is this single metaphysical assumption that is the foundation of our reality. The rest of the universe’s history is described in terms of the experimental measurements that have been made of the mass, space, time and gravity of the Hydrogen atom and the other elements.

Standard Model of Physics

This account of the Living Universe does not deviate at all from the basic values and parameters of the standard model descriptions of the physics of the hydrogen atom. This is not so much the history of the universe as it is the history of the hydrogen atom. It merely follows the sequence of events that occur to hydrogen atoms as the mass of their electrons decrease. No exotic new particles have been proposed, it doesn’t begin with a singularity and their is no violation of any of the most basic conservation laws. Unlike the Big Bang theory, no new laws, particles, dimensions or interactions need be introduced in order to explain the relevant astronomical observations.

Nothing new is really said about the hydrogen atom. I picture the hydrogen atom with my circlon models of nuclear and atomic structure, but the circlon model is not needed to explain this whole scenario. However you picture the hydrogen atom in your mind, you should be able to plug that picture into the evolutionary scenario that has been presented here. The whole process logically flows from one sequence to the next without the introduction of any paradoxes or exotic ideas. The whole process strictly adheres to the widely accepted basic principles of both nuclear physics and the electrodynamics of hydrogen. The Principle of Gravitational Expansion has been an integral part of this explanation but either Einstein’s or Newton’s theories of gravity can also work adequately well within the presentation. The only thing new, in the Living Universe, is a novel way of explaining the evolutionary history of the hydrogen atom through a transformation in electron mass. The Living Universe model is compatible with basically all of the experimental data that has been accumulated for photons, atoms and particles of matter.

In the Living Universe, the evolution of matter results from the gradual decrease in the mass of the electron. The universe is said to be “living” because it has evolved through the reproduction of eternal particles of matter. Like any complex organism, the universe began as a single “cell” and then through constant cell division reached its present state.

In order to better understand its workings, the history of the Living Universe is divided into several different eras in which changing “constants” and parameters transform the properties of matter. The passage from one era to the next is caused by both abrupt and gradual phase transitions in the nature of the interactions between the proton and electron and in the properties of the neutron and the hydrogen atom. The laws and the constants of nature are basically the same as they are in other theories of the universe except that, in the Living Universe, some of these laws and “constants” gradually grow and transform over long periods of time.

To better illustrate the following history of the universe, I have used my own conceptual mechanical models of the photon, proton, electron, neutron and hydrogen atom. These models help me think about matter in a more concrete way, but they are definitely not needed to validate the Living Universe model. As long as you can accept the assumption that the mass of the electron can change, then the standard models of physics and quantum mechanics will work equally well to explain the basic dynamics of this evolutionary model of the universe. The basic parameters of my atomic models are the same as those of Quantum Mechanics except that photons have mass and particles are not points. In the Living Universe, all of the standard conservation laws of physics remain intact, whereas in the Big Bang theory most are violated.

The Evolution of the Electron

The group of theories that collectively make up the Standard Model of the Big Bang have become generally accepted by the cosmological community even though they contain many paradoxical and contradictory conclusions as well as several gross violations of the most well established laws of physics. I will not go into many of the details of the Big Bang theory here, but will instead present a parallel but far less random history of the universe. I will then touch on various aspects of the Big Bang theory as they become pertinent.

This account of the evolution of matter in the Living Universe is based solely the Principle of Electron Transformation. This is a gradual decrease in the mass of the electron that transforms the properties and dynamics of the hydrogen atom. This principle states that since the very beginning, the mass of the electron (negatively charged matter) has very slowly but continually decreased relative to the mass of the proton (positively charged matter). This changing of the mass ratio between proton and electron greatly alters the intensity of the interactions between these two particles. This changing mass also governs the dynamics of both the formation and decay of neutrons and the radiation and absorptions of photons by atoms. As we follow this gradual transformation of mass back in time, we find that the universe began in an event analogous to the big bang but far more orderly and lifelike. In the Living Universe the genesis of matter was more like the growing of a perfect algae bloom than the detonation of the ultimate explosion.

An Arbitrary Beginning

The initial condition for the Living Universe is not a singularity or even a beginning of time. It is an eternal duality. For those religious folks who like to begin their creation stories with a god, I am afraid that in this case, you must begin with both a god and a goddess. Here we will give this Yin & Yang dichotomy the more secular names of positron and antiproton. We can still require that each of these “gods” possess a unit of consciousness, so that we may be able to account for the origin and location of our own individual consciousness here at the present state of the universe’s evolution of matter.

We need not say that this is the beginning of time. It is just an arbitrarily point in time that has been chosen to begin this story. By going any farther into the past, we would enter a very uninteresting period of time.

Just as the most basic component of today’s universe is the hydrogen atom, the Living Universe began with the single atom of antihydrogen. This atom sat at the “center” of what can be best imagined as an infinite three dimensional void. This single atom of antihydrogen was not unlike the hydrogen atoms of today except that its mass was the same as the mass of the entire universe today. We now say that an antihydrogen atom is antimatter in that it is made from a positively charged particle called a positron and a negatively charged particle called an antiproton. In this description of the hydrogen atom, the term “antimatter” will be avoided. There is only positive matter (protons, positrons, etc.) and negative matter (electrons, antiprotons, etc.). When gamma ray photons interact with matter, they can split into electron-positron pairs as well as proton-antiproton pairs. These are particle-antiparticle pairs. Since each fundamental particle is still always created or annihilated with a particle/antiparticle pair, it would be confusing to call either one “antimatter”.

The Era of Gravitational Time

So, we begin the universe with the duality of a positive mass particle and a negative antiparticle. They are held in a bound state by their opposite charges. Both are stable except for the slow expansion of gravitational time. Both particle and antiparticle are slowly expanding gravitationally at the rate of gravitational time. This particle and antiparticle are much like the +positrons and -antiprotons of today except that their combined mass is equal to the total mass of the universe. They are joined together in this primordial atom of antihydrogen. Each particle expands independently with its own internal measure of gravitational time. These two independent gravitational clocks are almost perfectly synchronized but not quite. The negative particle is expanding gravitationally just slightly faster than the positive particle. This causes the negative particle to gradually lose mass relative to the positive particle. The mass and size of the particles grew closer together until the positive particle was sucked inside of the negative particle and they became an antineutron.

The Antineutron Era

The universe is now a stable antineutron. This antineutron can be characterized as the combination of a positron and an antiproton. The antiproton has considerably more mass than the positron. However, as time passes, the antiproton slowly loses mass as it grows larger in proportion to the +positron. Eventually the values for the masses and dimensions l (wavelengths) of the two particles become identical.

The Era of Matter Bifurcation

The universe is now a true particle/antiparticle pair that annihilates into two particle/antiparticle pairs. This original particle/antiparticle neutron is not like any particle that has ever existed before or since. It is like the “God Particle” that has been predicted in some occult theories of nature. It is even analogous to the singularity of the Big Bang. Since the original positron and antiproton were bound together in a neutron, it makes the newly formed matter/antimatter pair able to annihilate into two neutrons rather than two photons. As soon as these two new neutrons are formed, they each undergo an internal alignment process and then split into four neutrons and then eight and then sixteen, etc. There was a great synchronicity to this process that caused each bifurcation to occur simultaneously throughout this growing cloud of neutrons. At each cycle, the number of neutrons was a power of two 22,23, 24, 25, 26,-------2256. The time period between these individual powers of two is as yet undetermined. However, it must be assumed that at each step of particle duplication, enough time would pass for the individual splitting particles to move a considerable distance from one another before the next bifurcation occurred.

This process of serial neutron bifurcation proceeded with a perfectly synchronistic timing for perhaps 256 cycles. There is nothing special about the number 2256 . It is just that it is the most beautiful number that is quite close to Eddington’s durable estimate for the mass of the universe of 1080 proton masses. The point being made here is that whatever the exact number of particles in the universe might be, it must be a power of two. This number makes it possible to represent the exact number of particles in the universe with a very simple multiple exponent equation.

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Exact number of electrons and protons in the Living Universe

It is at this point where perfect synchronicity was lost between the two particles and the bifurcation process ceases. Enough time has passed for the mass of the negative particle to become less than the mass of the positive particle and thus they are no longer particle-antiparticle pairs capable of annihilation. What had been one antineutron composed of a positron and an antiproton has now become transformed into 2256 neutrons composed of 2256 electrons and 2256 protons.

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matter creation spiral

The Cosmic Ray Era

This smooth and continuous process of neutron bifurcation, in which the number of particles in the universe doubled with each cycle, progressed unabated for perhaps 256 cycles with almost perfect synchronicity. The only flaw in the process developed as the Living Universe became more and more crowded with neutrons. Neutrons began to collide with one another with more and more force. In many of these collisions the two neutrons annihilated into four equal photons instead of four neutrons. These photons were stable and many of them are still with us today in the form of the most energetic cosmic rays. The others have become dissipated among the atoms of the universe in the form of heat and other kinds of energy.

In the Living Universe, a portion of the cosmic rays are ancient photons from the era of matter bifurcation. The energy of individual cosmic ray photons can be divided into 256 groups of photons. All photons in each group have the same energy and wavelength that are all based on the powers of two. As we go up the scale, individual cosmic ray photons reach enormous energies. At the upper end of this scale, a single photon could have a mass and energy approaching that of the whole universe.

Because of their scarcity, it is difficult to detect the more energetic of the cosmic ray photons. The most energetic cosmic ray photons that have been measured have energies of about 1021 electron volts or about 50 joules. This is enough energy to create 1,000,000,000 proton/antiproton pairs. In more familiar terms, it is the energy of a one liter bottle of water falling to the ground from a second story window.

The most amazing thing about cosmic rays is that their spectrum appears to have no upper limit! Unlike the blackbody spectrum, the energy/intensity curve at the upper cosmic ray spectrum straightens out towards infinity rather than curving down toward some maximum energy. The cosmic ray spectrum is such that photons of all wavelengths have the same energy intensity and contribute equally to the total cosmic ray energy. For example, if one particular cosmic ray photon has an energy of one unit and is detected at the rate of one per second, then another photon with an energy 60 times greater would only be detected at one per minute, and another photon with an energy of 3600 units would only be detected at the rate of one per hour. Each of these three photon groups contributes the same 3600 units per hour to the total cosmic ray energy spectrum. If we wait long enough to detect it, there is virtually no limit to the energies of the individual cosmic ray photons we might encounter.

The problem with detecting and measuring cosmic rays with energies of more than a few dozen Joules is that the combination of their increasing energy and decreasing intensity makes it almost impossible to design a detector that can accurately capture them. Even so, the curve points toward extremely rare cosmic rays with the energy of a thermonuclear bomb or even much greater.

It seems possible that the Tunguska event of June 30, 1908 was really the impact of one of these extremely rare apocalyptic photons! This explosion, in a remote area of Siberia, is estimated to have been equal to about 2,000,000 tons of TNT (1016 Joules), yet it made no crater and no debris from an impacting body has ever been found. A photon with this energy has a mass of about 110 grams and a wavelength of 10-41 meter. This photon would have been emitted from the 86ST bifurcation cycle before the final one.

The most powerful cosmic ray photons, yet to be observed, cause the gamma ray bursts that come randomly from all directions of the cosmos. Imagine a 10,000 kilogram photon with a wavelength of 2 x10-45m and an energy of about 1021 joules. Such a photon would produce a very intense, yet short lived, burst of gamma ray photons if it struck a material body. These bursts would be visible from the far reaches of the universe. Such a photon would have been emitted from the 102nd Bifurcation cycle. Gamma ray bursts have been observed with much greater energies than this and with durations of much less than a second.

The Neutron Cloud Era

During this time of repeated particle bifurcation, the mass of the negative antiproton continued to decrease until it was no longer the perfect antiparticle for the proton. As soon as its mass became less than the proton’s, the antiproton effectively became an electron. This immediately stopped the annihilation/bifurcation process so that when the electrons and protons attempted their 257th bifurcation cycle, the electrons were instead captured by the protons and 2256 neutrons were formed. 2255 unstable antineutron God particles became 2256 stable neutrons.

What had been a universe of repeated reproductive pulses, now became a vast cloud of individual neutrons floating about the vast reaches of space. These neutrons lacked the internal energy to decay and were thus completely stable.

This stable neutron cloud lasted for a long time. As the cloud spread, individual neutrons collided and interacted with one another. They tended to form small groups that in turn became gathered into larger groups. Over time, this great universal neutron cloud became segmented into countless numbers of smaller and denser clouds on many different levels of scale.

The Neutron Decay Era

The universe is now a great diffuse cloud of stable neutrons. Externally the neutrons are all drifting away from one another and the great cloud is becoming segmented into separate smaller clouds on several layers of scale. Internally the mass of the electrons continually get smaller as their wavelengths grow larger. At the end of this era, the mass/wavelength ratio between the proton and electron has increased to the point where the neutrons becomes unstable and decay all at once. The reason for this simultaneous decay of neutrons is that, as the size of the electron increases, the values for the Fine Structure Constant (α) and the Circlon Constant (θ) (√α = θ) also increase. The neutrons all decayed when the primary coils of the electron became larger than the secondary coils of the proton. For the first time, this made it possible for electrons to couple to the outsides of protons, form hydrogen atoms and emit photons.

The Neutrino Era

The universe is now filled with unstable neutrons that are all decaying at once. When these neutrons decay, the electron and proton are ejected at high velocity and equal momenta along the 2257 vectors that make up the universe’s infinite number of spacial dimensions. The difference between the decay of these proto-neutrons and the neutrons of today is that there were no neutrinos emitted. These original neutrons were formed through particle/antiparticle annihilation and not from the electron capture process by which neutrons are formed today. In the electron capture process of today, an electron is forced inside the structure of a proton along with the creation of a neutrino-antineutrino pair. The neutrino is emitted into space and the antineutrino stays within the neutron until it decays. Today, when a neutron decays, it emits a proton, electron and an antineutrino at a whole range of different energies.

The Era of Nuclear Synthesis

The universe is now a seething mass of 2257 high speed electrons and protons that start colliding with one another. In most of these interactions the two particles bounce off one another and emit a photon but there are a great many other interactions that can occur in these collisions, if the velocities and trajectories are just right. The most common is that a proton and electron will couple together to form a hydrogen atom. In this process, the angular momentum between the two particles is released in a series of photons as the atom drops down into its ground state. If they hit just right and at the correct velocity, nuclear reactions can also take place. A proton and an electron can form a neutron. A neutron and proton can combine into a deuteron and another neutron can be captured to form a triton. Add another proton and get a helium 4 nucleus. In this way, the nuclear reactions that form the isotopes of all the chemical elements become possible. By the end of this era, countless nuclear reactions had produced small samples of all the known elements. In the Big Bang theory, it is only possible to make the light elements in stars and the heavy elements in supernova explosions. It can’t explain the spectra of heavy elements that have been observed in the most distant galaxies at the beginning of the Big Bang’s universe. In the Living Universe, 99% of the matter is hydrogen, helium and some lithium. However, the other 1% contains samples of all the other elements created at matter’s beginnings. Heavier elements are also being produced in stars and supernova explosions.

cosmic background radiation

The Era of the Great Frozen Fire

The universe is now a vast cloud of hydrogen gas with a sprinkling of neutrons and other elements. All of these nuclei and atoms emit photons as they acquire electrons and cool. With all these hydrogen atoms producing the same basic spectrum of photons, the universe soon became filled with a mixture of photons that almost perfectly matched a blackbody distribution curve for the temperature of 2.7° K. This great, but very cold “frozen fire” swept through the whole universe at a temperature of 2.7° above absolute zero. However, this fire never really went out or even cooled off. After billions of years, the photons produced by this fire have not changed in wavelength or intensity. These photons have since been traveling about the Living Universe unchanged and are still with us today at the same temperature.

This temperature of 2.7°K is not a random number. It is the temperature of the hydrogen radiation spectrum at the point in time of electron transformation when it was possible of the first time for protons and electrons to form hydrogen atoms and emit photons. Before this transition in electron mass, it was only possible for protons and electrons to form neutrons.

The Galaxy Era

The universe now contains great clouds of cool hydrogen gas. Gravitational expansion is breaking these clouds apart and condensing them into smaller and denser clouds on many different levels of scale. This is the same interaction that segments atmospheric clouds into here on earth. The smaller clouds eventually condense into stars, the larger clouds make clusters of stars and the very largest are compressed into galaxies and galaxy clusters. This process of star and galaxy formation took a very long time before the stars could begin the thermal nuclear reactions that eventually produced starlight. The most distant galaxies, that are at the observational limits of the Hubble Telescope, are determined by their “red shifts” to be at a distance of about twelve billion light years. Cosmologists calculate that the big bang happened about thirteen billion years ago. This estimate is derived from reversing the presumed expansion of the universe and leaves little time for the very lengthy process of star and galaxy formation. In the Living Universe model, the cosmos is far older and there is plenty of extra time for the stars and galaxies to form.

The Starlight Era

After many billions of years of organization, the universe is now filled with galaxies whose smallest clouds are compressed by gravitational expansion to the point where they become so hot that hydrogen and helium nuclei begin to fuse and turn the clouds into a stars. By this time, the electrons have become considerably less massive than the protons. This causes the hydrogen atoms to produce a spectrum of photons with shorter and shorter wavelengths. When we look deep into the universe and view these first galaxies, we see that the radiation spectra of the various elements contain photons with much longer wavelengths than those photons have here on earth today. This effect supplies the true cause of the Hubble red shift. The galaxies are not moving apart, nor is the space in between them expanding. It is just that today, atoms emit photons with shorter wavelengths than they did in the distant past. In the Living Universe, starlight from distant galaxies has not become red shifted. What has happened is that the starlight within the Milky Way has become blue shifted by the shrinking mass of the electron.

The “Dark Energy” Era

The universe is now filled with vibrant young galaxies that are mature enough so that some of the stars have completed their life cycles and begin to explode in supernova explosions. These supernova explosions became more powerful as the mass of the electron became less. As the galaxies matured the supernovas became more and more powerful. If matter really is becoming more energetic, we would expect to find evidence of this as we look far out into the universe. Supernovas are so bright that they can be readily recognized at great distances. As they are observed at greater and greater distances they should appear dimmer than can be accounted for by their red shift derived distance.

In 1998, the High-Z Supernova Discovery Team at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore announced that they had discovered just such an effect. They found that distant supernovas appear 20% dimmer than could be accounted for by their Hubble shifts. The big bang people try to account for this phenomenon with their ad hoc fifth interaction called “dark energy”. This new force is quite unlike the other four interactions. It is said to be a repulsive force of infinite reach that is stronger than gravity at cosmological distances but can’t be detected at close range. When we look back on this era today we see that the more distant supernovas are less powerful than we would calculate from just their distance. This is because both chemical and nuclear reactions were less energetic then than they are today. In the Living Universe, it is only natural that the electron transformation caused supernovas in the past to be intrinsically less powerful than today’s supernovas.

The Quasar Era

Quasars are very large stars with surface velocities near the speed of light. An electron on this accelerated surface would have a kinetic mass that could be several times its rest mass. This greater electron mass increases the Bohr radius and causes atoms to emit photons with much longer wavelengths. This gives a quasar a large gravity red shift that is independent of its motion relative to an observer. Quasars are thus neither extremely bright nor extremely far away.

The Dinosaur Era

The universe is now much like it is today. The mechanics of gravitational expansion has assembled the solar system and the earth is teaming with many different life forms. The main difference from today’s earth is that the electron was heavier than it is now and the Bohr radius was larger. This caused the atoms, as well as the earth itself, to be larger than they are today. The result of this larger and less dense earth was a substantially reduced acceleration of gravity at the earth’s surface. This weaker surface gravity made it possible for very large animals like the dinosaurs to walk and even run, despite their enormous weights.

The great paradox in the study of dinosaurs is that their physiology does not match their bodies. They are simply just too big and heavy to be held up by their mussels and bones. Today the biggest dinosaurs might float in a pond but they wouldn’t be able to get out and walk or run. In the Living Universe, the dinosaurs lived in a world with less gravity and were thus able to romp and play and chase each other around just as smaller animals do today.

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bohr radius

This drawing shows several stages in the life of the hydrogen atom since it first came into existence when Atomic Coil Clearance Q reached a value of Mp/Me θ = 1.0.

Prior to this point in time, the tertiary coil of the proton was larger than the primary coils of the electron. This made it impossible for the electron to couple to the outside of the proton and form a hydrogen atom. Instead the electron was held inside of the proton to form a neutron.

Once the value for Q became greater than 1.0 (Me/Mp = θ) the interaction between protons and electrons completely changed. Now, for the first time, it became possible for an electron to couple to the outside of a proton and emit the photons of the hydrogen spectrum.

What had been a universe composed of an orderly cloud of 2256 stable neutrons now became completly chaotic as the neutrons decayed and hydrogen atoms began forming and emitting photons.

At this point in time, the maximum energy photon λ∞ =.000179m of the hydrogen atom, was the same as the maximum energy photon of the 2.7°K CBR of today. The temperature of hydrogen radiation was then 2.7°K. With higher and higher values for Q and lower and lower values for the Bohr radius ao, the photon spectrum grew more energetic and gradually heated the universe to today’s hydrogen radiation temperature on the sun of 6000°K.

The universe did not begin as a very hot “bang” and then cool off. Instead, the universe has a reverse entropy. It began at the very cold temperature of 2.7°K and has been heating up ever since.

The Dimensional Constant of Matter θaο is the radius of the secondary coils of the Bohr radius link in the hydrogen atom. This dimension of 4.5 x 10-12m is the only spacial constant to occur during the cosmological evolution of matter. This radius within the hydrogen atom had the same dimension at the very beginning of atoms as it does today.

The Shrinking Earth Era

It is now today in the universe. The electron has lost mass since the Dinosaur Era and is now at 1/1836 proton mass. As the electron loses mass, it causes the atoms to get smaller and more energetic. This means that the earth is considerably smaller and the sun is getting hotter. The wavelengths of the hydrogen spectrum have grown shorter today than they were in the Dinosaur Era.

Another interesting property of the changing Bohr radius is the different effects it has on light atoms and heavy atoms. As the Bohr radius get smaller, it causes all atoms to also shrink in size. However, the rate by which an atom gets smaller is dependant on the number of its bound electrons. In this process of shrinking atoms, the light elements shrink proportionally more than the heavy elements.

This effect provides any easy answer to one of the most difficult of the earth’s geological mysteries. Geologists have long tried to supply a mechanism to explain the apparent break up and spreading apart of the earth’s continents. Plate tectonics is the latest idea to explain this phenomenon but it sometimes opens up more questions than it is able answer. Even if all the evidence for continental drift could be explained by the movement of large plates in the earth’s crust, there is still no underlying mechanism that can make the plates move in the first place. There is a great deal of geological evidence to support the idea that the earth once had a single large continent called Pangea. Between then and now, Pangea broke apart into a number of continents and islands that drifted over much of the remaining globe. The physical evidence for this whole event is really very good. There has long been evidence that the earth was expanding and the continents were moving farther apart. The problem is that no one has been able to come up with a physical system that can even come close to making the whole process work.

In the Living Universe, the shrinking of the earth’s crust at a faster rate than the interior causes the surface to crack apart just as if it were the interior that was expanding.

The Era of Zero Entropy

Cosmologists have long adopted the very popular primary assumption that the universe is in a constant process of cooling down from a much hotter initial state. Mainstream cosmological theories have always been built around verifying this assumption. However, when we look for actual physical evidence to support this assumption we can find very little if any.

With the electron’s mass getting smaller and smaller it is easy to see that the universe is actually getting hotter. The photon emission spectra for all the elements are gradually growing to greater energies and shorter wavelengths. It could be that this effect just matches the “heat death” predicted for the universe by the second law of thermodynamics. If the assumption is made that these effects are equal, then it can be concluded that the entropy in the universe is zero.

As the Living Universe cools from the dissipation of energy into longer and longer wavelength photons, it is also being warmed by the shortening wavelengths of atomic emissions.

The Chemical Era

As the mass/size ratio between the proton and electron grow, there are subtle changes in the chemical reactions that occur from protons and electrons coupling together. Chemical compounds in the distant past had somewhat different properties than they do today. I do not have any evidence for the above statement but it seems that it must be true. Such an effect may be hard to detect. Perhaps the chemicals that make up dinosaur bone were stronger then than they are now. Perhaps there was a point in cosmological chemistry about three billion years ago when the chemistry was just right for the spontaneous formation of DNA and other organic molecules. Since then, these molecules have reproduced, diversified, and joined together to preserve themselves. As Timothy Leary said, “We are all the result of an unbroken chain of life that is over three billion years.” There is no place along this chain where at least some portion of our present bodies did not exist.

In the Living Universe, the evolution of life is driven by the changing parameters of cosmological chemistry. In the future, molecules that do not exist today may be possible. Certainly the intensity of chemical reactions will be different.

The Era of Conscious Thought

Perhaps the most remarkable thing about this whole scenario of a Living Universe is that we are here to understand and discuss it. To understand the universe, we must first realize that the motion of the electron transformation through time gives the universe a conscious perception of time. In the Living Universe, the basic unit of consciousness is contained within the inner workings of the hydrogen atom. If atoms are not the basic units of consciousness then where does the consciousness of our bodies come from? Higher forms of consciousness result from the connection of many atoms and molecules that are then connected into symmetrical patterns. Our own consciousness is the result of about 1029 of these basic connections within our bodies. A 100 kg rock also has 1029 of these connections and thus has the same amount of bulk consciousness that we do. The difference is that our atoms are connected in far more intricate patterns than the rock’s atoms. The rock may have consciousness but because of the more complex connections between our atoms, we have intelligence.

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Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.