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The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

Absolute Motion of Mass

Principle of Absolute Motion

All acceleration measured by an accelerometer produces real change in motion, either acceleration or deceleration, relative to photon rest. Deceleration is distinguished from acceleration by the increasing rate of an atomic clock undergoing deceleration and the slowing rate of a clock undergoing acceleration.

A Case for Absolute Motion Relative to Absolute Photon Rest

A case can be made for the position of absolute rest as a logical progression from the nature of the photon. While the Doppler effect of the photon perfectly hides absolute motion and any position of rest, its very nature demands the existence of a position of rest for the photon even though it can’t be directly detected.

Assuming they are both moving, there is an intrinsic Doppler effect caused by the motion of both source and observer that is undetectable. All that can be measured is the effect of the relative motion between them that has no intrinsic direction. For a photon to have a Doppler effect, it must first have an intrinsic wavelength and energy (E=MC2) as it travels through space relative to a single frame. The “C” in this equation has no meaning except in a relation to a position of rest.

The Doppler effect is caused by a velocity of plus or minus the speed of light. It is not possible to have a constant velocity for all photons and not have a position of absolute rest for each one. All photons move on single one-dimensional vectors relative a common position of rest.

Absolute Motion of Photons in the 2.7° CBR

The primary experimental proof for the absolute photon rest frame is the vast number of photons that make up the 2.7° Cosmic Blackbody Radiation. These photons make up as much as 99% of all the photons in the universe and they are distributed in a virtually perfect blackbody spectrum for a temperature of 2.726° Kelvin. Careful measurement of this spectrum reveals a dipole anisotropy that shows a slightly higher temperature in the direction of the constellation of Leo and a correspondingly lower temperature in the opposite direction near the constellation of Aquarius. If we view these temperature differences as red and blue Doppler shifts, then it becomes apparent that we (the solar system) are moving with absolute motion in the direction of Leo at a velocity of about 375 km/sec. Since the rotation of the Milky Way galaxy moves the solar system in a somewhat opposite direction to this motion, the actual motion of the Milky Way relative to the 2.7° CBR is about 600 km/sec or .002 C. Since most of the photons in the universe are 2.7° CBR photons, it would seem quite unlikely that the other photons produced by stars and by us here on earth could move at C within different reference frames.

Both their extremely even directional distribution and their precise blackbody curve should convince anyone that the 2.7° CBR photons are all moving at exactly C relative to one another within the same inertial reference frame. If these photons were not all moving at exactly the same velocity, then they would quickly lose their virtually perfect black body distribution curve. All other astronomical photon observations, such as red shifted spectra, would be blurred beyond recognition without a universally common value for C as well as a universal position of photon rest.

A Proposed Test of Absolute Rest

In a thought experiment, we accelerate (actually decelerate) one space probe to a velocity of 375 km/s in the direction of Aquarius. We then accelerate a second probe to 375 km/s in the direction of Leo. The Aquarius probe would then reach a position of absolute rest where the dipole anisotropy would disappear. The 2.7 CBR would be exactly the same temperature in all directions. The Leo probe would be moving toward Leo at an absolute velocity of 750 km/s and the dipole anisotropy would be doubled in value.

dipole anistropy

The earth and each probe have identical light bulbs that produce a precise spectrum of green photons with a wavelength of λ=1. The Doppler shift causes these and all other moving light bulbs to emit photons of different wavelengths in different directions. The bulb attached to the earth emits red shifted photons in the direction of Aquarius and blue shifted photons in the direction of Leo.

Even though the Earth light bulb emits different colored photons in different directions, an observer on earth would only be able to see green photons. The Doppler shift caused by the earth’s motion causes all photons from the bulb to be measured as green. Likewise, the earth’s motion away from them, causes the green photons from the Aquarius light to be red shifted to the same value as the photons from the Leo light. In actuality, the photons from the Leo light are blue-shifted by the earth’s motion toward them. The photons leaving the Leo light toward earth have twice as much intrinsic red shift as they do when measured at the earth.

Photons emitted from the lights on either probe would be observed on Earth to be red shifted by an increase in wavelength and a decrease in energy of .00125. Likewise, photons emitted from the earth would be observed at either probe to be red shifted by the same amount. Since both of these sets of photons are measured to have the same wavelength of 1.00125, is it possible that they can have the same intrinsic wavelengths as they pass each other while traveling through space?

The relative motion of Special Relativity tells us that these photons can have no intrinsic wavelength until they are measured. Special Relativity claims that we can not know to what degree each of these two sets of photons are red shifted.

This is not true, because if the observers on earth measure the 2.7° CBR coming from the direction of the Aquarius space probe, they see that this radiation is also red-shifted by 1.00125 when compared with 2.7° CBR photons coming at right angles to the direction of the probe.

On the other hand, an observer on this probe would see photons emitted from earth to have a red-shift of 1.00125 but no shift at all in the 2.7° CBR photons coming from any direction. An observer on the Leo probe would also see earth photons shifted to l=1.00125. However, that observer would measure the 2.7° CBR to be warmer than usual in the direction of Leo and cooler toward Aquarius.

In the Living Universe all photons have a precise wavelength and velocity relative to all other photons and a different measured wavelength and relative velocity in interactions with moving observers. Even if it were possible for some photons to go slower or faster than C, it would be nearly impossible to detect this. Unless we use the 2.7° CBR as the standard for both rest and the speed of light, it would not be possible to tell if a Doppler effect is caused by either the motion of the observer or of the source or a combination of both.

When we measure a non-Doppler shifted photon, we can determine its wavelength (λ = h/MC) and its energy (E=MC2). These values are only valid at photon rest. When we are moving relative to photon rest, the photons that we measure are Doppler shifted from their true intrinsic parameters. The wavelength λ = h/MC+/-V and energy E=M(C+/-V)2 that we measure are different from the photon’s true wavelength and energy because of our velocity either toward or away from the photon’s motion at C.

Because all photons we measure are Doppler shifted to one degree or another it would be impossible to determine if some photons were actually moving faster or slower than C. The primary criteria for measuring a photon’s parameters is the assumption that it is moving at c relative to the measuring instrument.

The Earth’s Rotational Clock

A simple example of the time dilation mechanism is the day and night clock of the earth’s rotation. If the earth could be accelerated to a much higher velocity, its mass would be increased by an amount proportional to its increased kinetic energy (M=E/C2). In order to conserve angular momentum, this increased mass would slow the earth’s rotation and “dilate” the day to a greater length. This increased length in the day could not be measured with earthbound atomic clocks because the same accelerated motion that increased the mass of the earth would also increase the mass of the clocks and slow their rates by the same amount. However, these changes in clock rates could be detected by monitoring the rates of non-local clocks such as pulsars both before and after the acceleration.

This same process of mass increase that would slow the earth’s rotation also slows the vibrational processes of the cesium atoms in atomic clocks. Time dilation does not change “time”. It merely represents physical changes in the parameters that are used to measure time.

The Mass of Clocks

Another example of absolute motion vs relative motion can be illustrated by a space probe that is decelerated to a position of rest within the 2.7° CBR. As it is decelerated by 375 km/sec to a position of photon rest, the Lorentz Transformation would decrease its mass by .0000008. This small change in mass might be impossible to detect were it not for the effect that it has on the internal components of clocks. In order to conserve angular momentum, the spinning or vibrating components of clocks must change their rates of motion in response to motion induced changes in mass. An atomic clock onboard this probe should increase its rate of ticking by .0000008 relative to an identical clock on earth.

Special Relativity would predict that its rate would slow by .0000008 as it was “accelerated” to 375 km/sec. Either way, it would seem certain that if the clock was accelerated back to the Earth’s frame, it would then run at the same rate as the Earth clock. If the clock slowed when accelerated away from the Earth and then speeded up when accelerated back toward the Earth, what is the mechanism by which the atoms in the clock know that they must slow down during the first acceleration and then must speed up during the second identical acceleration?

The only answer to this question must be that clocks run at a maximum rate when they are at the position of absolute photon rest and far away from any gravitating bodies. Clocks then slow their rates when they are accelerated relative to photon rest or placed on a gravitating body. We can conclude from this that space has just a single position of absolute rest that is shared be all clocks, matter and photons.

Locating Absolute Rest with Clocks instead of Photons

A position of absolute rest can be located in a general way by measuring Doppler effects within the 2.7 CBR. A critic might say that the whole CBR might be moving and that the position of absolute rest for photons might be different than the position of rest for matter. There is a way of measuring for the position of absolute rest for matter that uses clocks rather than any direct use of photons.

Consider a spacecraft that is moving at a high velocity but has lost its direction and wants of find its way back to absolute rest. The pilot could look out the window and measure the Doppler shifts in the CBR but that would just give him the position of photon rest that might be different from matter’s position of rest. Instead he synchronizes his atomic clock to six pulsars in the six approximate directions of left, right, backward, forward, up and down. All six pulsars can be considered as clocks that are beating at different but constant rates. For the purposes of this experiment we will say that the pulsars average 1000 pulses per sec and together they produce exactly a constant 6000 beats per sec.

To find his way back to rest, the pilot must first accelerate in some random direction. If the ship is accelerating to a higher velocity its clock will slow down and if the ship is decelerating, its clock will speed up. This rate change cannot be detected locally but can be measured by monitoring the combined rates of the six pulsars. Individual pulsar pulse rates will change as the ship moves faster away from and faster towards them. However, the sum of all six pulsar rates will remain a constant 6000 beats/sec no matter in what direction the ship accelerates. Thus, by measuring the differing rates between the ship’s clock and the combined rates of the pulsar clocks, the pilot can navigate back to a position of absolute rest by “accelerating” in the direction that causes the ship’s clock to run faster than the pulsar clocks.

The ship’s clock will speed up as it loses velocity while the combined rate of the six pulsars will remain constant. Absolute rest is reached when the onboard clock is running at a maximum and any further change in motion causes it to run slower than the pulsar clocks.

Once this position of absolute rest is located for matter, the pilot can then measure for Doppler shifts in the 2.7° CBR to see if the position of rest for photons is the same as the position of rest for matter.

The Slowing of Clocks and the Twin Paradox

An example of clocks changing their rates with changes in motion is the so called Twin Paradox where one twin travels at very high speed to a star and back and returns younger than the twin that stayed home.

The term “twin paradox” is often used within Special Relativity theory to explain how a paradox occurs when the attempt is make to describe the rate changes in clocks based only on differences in relative motion between the clocks. The paradox arises because it is absolute inertial motion and absolute gravitational motion that changes the rate of clocks and not relative motion. Relative motion between clocks may or may not cause them to have different rates.

The clock “paradox” thought experiments discussed here are based on the mechanics of clock slowing experiments. Neither Special Relativity nor any other theory is used to interpret the results of these measurements. Measurements show that atomic clocks change their rates from both gravity and motion according to the equations of the Lorentz transformation. The Lorentz transformation is not a theory. It is simply a relationship that we measure between mass, space and time. Measurements show that all atomic clocks run at a maximum and identical rate at a position of rest. Any velocity relative to this position of rest increases the mass of the atoms within the clocks. This increased mass within the atoms causes their internal motions to slow in order to conserve angular momentum. It is this internal slowing of the clock’s atoms that slows the clock’s rate.

An atomic clock does not measure “time”. A clock is a cyclical device that monitors the conservation of angular momentum. Time does not have a physical existence other than as our idea of the motion within angular momentum. Time is merely the idea that we use to quantify the motion of mass. In the same way, space does not have a physical existence. Space is the other idea that we use to quantify its motion.

There is no paradox in the interpretation of these experiments that requires the logic of a theory to explain. There are real triplet “paradox” experiments that have been performed with atomic clocks. A triplet who spends a long time at the very low space station orbit will find that his watch is losing time relative his brother’s watch back on the earth. Conversely, the third triplet who spends his time in a communication satellite orbit can tell by his watch that he is older than both his brothers. There is no way that the different ages of these triplets can be considered as a paradox. This is simply the measured comparison between the rates of moving clocks.

The Triplet Paradox

To better understand the twin paradox within the principle of absolute motion, we will consider a special case using triplets where it is possible for the two traveling triplets to actually come home older than a third stay at home triplet.

Equal red and blue Doppler shifts occur in the 2.7° CBR on opposite sides of the universe on a line that passes through a point near the constellation of Aquarius on one side and a point near the constellation Leo on the other side. Measurements of these shifts show that the solar system is moving in the direction of Leo at about 375 km/s relative to the speed of light motion of the CBR photons.

In this thought experiment, there are triplets Adam, Bob & Chad. Adam stays on earth for two years. Bob accelerates to 375 km/sec in the direction toward Leo for one year and then turns around and travels back to earth at 375 km/sec. Chad accelerates to 375 km/sec in the direction of Aquarius and then after one year he turns around and returns to earth at the same velocity.

absolute motion

On Bob’s trip toward Leo, he is actually traveling at 750 km/sec relative to the photon rest point of the CBR. This causes his atomic clock to run slower by twice the amount that Adam’s clock is slowed by the motion of the earth. When Bob turns around, he has to accelerate to 750 km/sec to put him at a velocity of 375 km/sec back toward the earth. In actuality, this is deceleration that brings Bob to a position of absolute rest. On Bob’s “trip” back to earth, he is actually sitting still while it is the earth that travels to meet him. With no gamma factor to slow it, Bob’s clock is running faster than Adam’s clock. Also, Bob’s body clock is aging faster than Adam’s.

When Chad accelerates to 375 km/sec towards Aquarius, he is actually decelerating to a stop. This will cause his clock to run at its maximum Rest rate. He sits at rest while the earth moves away from him at 375 km/s. When he accelerates to 750 km/sec for his return to earth, his clock will be running twice as slow as Adam’s clock.

We might assume that when Bob and Chad return to earth, everyone’s clock would have recorded the same amount of time since all three triplets had each spent two years traveling at the same average velocity of 375 km/sec. However, this is not quite true because we would be neglecting the clock slowing caused by the earth’s gravitational motion. This gravity can be translated to the earth’s surface escape velocity of 11.2 km/sec. Since Bob and Chad were virtually free from gravitational forces and motions on their journeys, their clocks will both record more time than Adam’s clock that was slowed by both gravity and the earth’s constant velocity of 375 km/s.

In this special case, both traveling triplets will return home slightly older than their stay at home brother. This same effect will occur for any velocities less than 375 km/sec. Actually it is only for velocities greater than 375 + 11.2 km/sec that the travelers will return to earth younger than their stay at home sibling.

In reality, these low velocity time dilations would only be noticeable with very accurate clocks. For meaningful differences to occur in the triplet’s actual aging, they would have to travel at velocities closer to the speed of light. 375 km/s might seem very fast but at this velocity it would take about 6,400 years just to get to the nearest star and back.

Many experiments with orbiting clocks have shown that a clock’s rate of ticking will slow down when its absolute velocity is increased and will then speed up when it is decelerated to a lower velocity. These experiments show that there is no paradox between the triplet’s differences in aging rates.

Perfect Motion

The perfect record of every change in motion that a body has undergone is revealed in its present state of motion. Every time a body’s state of motion is changed the parameters of its mass and time are also altered in their absolute values. The kinetic masses of each proton and each electron have been changed by the Lorentz Transformation countless times in their past histories of motion. In cosmic rays, a particle’s kinetic mass can be increased to a million of times its rest mass. Yet, bring any two protons or any two electrons together within the same inertial reference frame and it will be found that the sum total of their many different mass changes is exactly the same for each. They will have exactly the same mass. What this means is that all matter was created in the same inertial reference frame. If this was not so, then all electrons and all protons in the same inertial frame would not have identical masses. If any two protons were created in different inertial reference frames, the degree of that difference could be easily detected as a difference in mass when one particle is either accelerated or decelerated to the same inertial reference frame of the other. An absolute distinction between intrinsic acceleration and intrinsic deceleration is very difficult to establish experimentally except at velocities approaching the speed of light. At these velocities, a proton’s or electron’s mass is considerably greater than it is in the observer’s inertial reference frame.

A simple example of intrinsic acceleration and deceleration is the case of two trains traveling towards each other at 100 m.p.h. on the same track along the Equator. When the engineer in each train sees the other, they both slam on their brakes and the trains come to a stop just before they collide.

When we put accelerometers on the trains, we measure that each train changed its state of motion by 100 mph. Whether these two opposite changes in motion were accelerations or decelerations must be decided by the observer in a purely arbitrary manner because accelerometers cannot distinguish between acceleration and deceleration. For most practical purposes we would want to view both trains as having decelerated. However, we know that Earth’s surface is rotating eastward at approximately 1000 mph. This means that the eastbound train was traveling 1100 m.p.h. and then decelerated to 1000 mph and that the westbound train was traveling at 900 mph and that the braking process accelerated it to 1000 mph. As we take a larger perspective, we encounter greater and greater velocities. The Earth’s orbital velocity is almost 19 miles/second (.00001 C). The sun’s orbital velocity around the Milky Way is about 150 miles/sec (.00008 C). Then ultimately the motion of Earth relative to the photons of the 2.7°K cosmic background radiation (2.7°CBR) is about 375 kilometers/sec (.00013 C) in the direction of Leo (.00013 C = red and blue shifts of .00013 λ and mass increases of 1.000000017). The Milky Way, as a whole, moves at about 600 km/s (.0002C) relative to the 2.7°CBR.

This 2.7°CBR motion is not relative and identifies Earth’s true and absolute motion through the universal inertial reference frame through which all photons travel at the speed of light. Since the 2.7°CBR photons come equally from all directions, the .00013 blue shift in Leo and the .00013 red shift in the opposite direction are true measures of Earth’s absolute motion through a fixed, stable and yet imaginary absolute space. Because of this motion, Earth’s mass has increased by:

Earth’s mass = 5.979x1024 kg x .000000017 = 100,000,000,000,000,000 kg

This represents an intrinsic kinetic energy of: E = MC2 = 9 x 1034 joules

This energy is equal to the total output of the sun for several years. The two trains share this increased mass with Earth so that a 5,000,000 kg train would have an increase in mass of 10 kg and representing a kinetic energy of 9 x 1017 joules that is equal to about 100,000,000 tons of TNT. A 100-kg passenger on the train has an increased mass of 200 milligrams and a kinetic energy of 1.8 x 1013 joules, which is about equal to the first atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico.

Even though an observer cannot detect these increases in mass here on Earth, they are very real indeed to the atoms making up that observer.

The mass of each atom maintains a perfect accounting of every change in motion that the atom and its constituent particles have experienced since they were created. Every time the atom is accelerated, its mass increases and every time it is decelerated its mass is decreased. While motion may appear virtually relative to even the most careful observer, it is actually perfectly absolute for each particle in the universe. Each atom’s absolute and perfect motion is the reason that identical atoms and particles have exactly the same mass within the same inertial reference frame. Even though their past records of accelerations and decelerations may be quite different and both particles may have had greatly different masses for much of their existence, when they are accelerated or decelerated to the same place, their masses become equal.

Supernovas as Proof of the Absolute Motion of Photons

By almost all accounts, a supernova is a gigantic explosion occurring near the end of a large star’s life cycle. Supernovas have been observed within the Milky Way as well as within some of the most distant galaxies in the universe. Unlike the much narrower and very precise photon spectrum of the 2.7° CBR, the intense burst from a supernova contains a very random mixture of photons composed of everything from gamma rays all the way to radio photons. By its very nature, we must assume that the photons received from a supernova explosion were emitted from very rapidly moving atoms and larger chunks of matter all traveling in different directions. Thus, the observation of a supernova provides ample proof that all photons move through space at exactly C, regardless of their wavelength or the motion of their source.

If this were not true, supernova observations would take on a completely different character. The duration of a type Ia supernova light curve is basically the same whether it comes from within our own galaxy or from one that is billions of light years away. A type Ia supernova takes about one week to reach maximum intensity and then about five weeks to fade away. If all the photons didn’t move away at exactly the same velocity, then the duration of distant explosions would appear to be much longer than the closer ones. In fact, if photon velocities varied by just a few meters per second, it would make a distant supernova appear to last for years instead of just a few weeks. If photon velocity varied by wavelength and say short wavelengths traveled faster than long wavelengths then the nature of supernova observations would be completely changed. The total spectrum would be divided like a rainbow. First we would see the gamma rays, then the X-rays, then the ultra-violet photons, then the visible light, etc.

Astronomy would not be possible if all photons didn’t travel at the same velocity of exactly C. We would still be able to observe the solar system but the rest of the universe would appear as a blurry fog of dim light.

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Cesium Atoms as Proof of Absolute Rest

Just as all photons are emitted at the same velocity within the same reference frame, it must also be assumed that all atoms, as well as all electrons and protons, share the same position of absolute rest. One convincing proof of this assumption can be found in the nature of the cesium-133 atom.

In the Standard Model of Cosmology it is believed that most of the elements much heavier than iron were created by the high speed collisions and fusion of lighter elements within supernova explosions. One such example of such a heavy element is cesium. Cesium has a single stable isotope of Cs-133. It must be assumed that these nuclei were formed individually at different times during these explosions and that they were all traveling at many different velocities and directions during and after their creations. These different velocities gave each nuclei a slightly different mass as well as a different internal rate of vibration.

However, when a large number of these cesium atoms are gathered together here on the surface of the earth, it is found that they all have exactly the same mass and that they are all vibrating at exactly the same rate of 9,192,631,770 beats per second. When we put these atoms in an atomic clock and accelerate them into a low earth space shuttle orbit (7.736 km/sec) all of these atoms will be found to vibrate at a slower rate. Then, if we decelerate the clock to a much higher and slower orbit like a GPS orbit (3.868 km/sec), the clock will be found to run faster as all of the cesium atoms vibrate at a faster rate. In the Living Universe all cesium atoms share the same exact position of absolute rest with all other atoms as well as all photons.

Electron Mass as Proof of Absolute Motion

Cesium was just used as an example, but the same is basically true for all elements as well as all particles. All atoms have characteristic vibrations or other properties that change when accelerated or decelerated to different velocities. For example, electrons all have exactly the same mass when measured in the laboratory. However, their mass can be increased by many times when they are accelerated in a particle accelerator. Once they are brought back to the laboratory frame, their mass is the same as it was to begin with. If all electrons, as well as all matter, did not share the same position of absolute rest then it would not be possible for all electrons to have identical masses when measured in the same reference frame. This change in mass is only detectable between reference frames and cannot be measured within a single inertial reference frame.

Here on Earth, an electron weighs 9.11 x10-31 kg. If we take our laboratory to say one-half the speed of light we will find that electrons still appear to weigh exactly 9.11 x10-31 kg. Even though we know that their mass should be 15% more due to the extra kinetic mass of their 1/2 C velocity, their mass appears to remain constant. This mass increase cannot be measured in the laboratory because relative to the 15% greater mass of the entire lab and the 15% slowing of the laboratory clocks, the increased mass of the electron measures to have exactly the same value that it had at rest.

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Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.