In the Living Universe, clocks derive their intervals from the local physical dynamics of their own internal structure. Time is a mathematical method that defines a quantity of momentum from the relationship between the positive reality of mass and the negative reality of space. The reality of time is only virtual.
There is no universal substance called “time”
There are many different ideas about a physical time reality that exists separate from matter. Some forms of time connect it to space into a continuum out of which matter springs. Time is seen as being connected to the aether, the electromagnetic field, the gravitational field and to the atom itself. Time is the “force” that brings all of these things together into a coherent unit. Some see time as the primary dynamic force in the universe out of which is created both space and matter. These many different ideas about a physical reality of time all provide a metaphysical time that is not detectable with any physical instrument.
Time does not have a real physical existence like matter or even the void of space that has a negative existence. Time is merely an idea used to quantify the motion of matter through the void of space. The idea of time is a dichotomy between metaphysical time and physical time. Metaphysical time is the perception of time as a continuous flow that is without interval and is thus immeasurable. It is the comprehension of motion and therefore of time’s passage. Clocks do not measure time. “Time itself” is a metaphysical concept and as such cannot be identified by any physical measurement nor can it be altered in any way by a physical effect. Clocks function by monitoring the constant relationship between mass and space known as the conservation of momentum and angular momentum. Time does not move the world, but the motions of the world can be quite beautifully generalized into the metaphysical idea of time.
Once time becomes quantified into intervals by the cyclical motion of a clock it becomes Physical time. Clocks divide the motions that we perceive as the flow of time into units of angular momentum that we call seconds, minutes, hours and days. Clocks do not measure time directly; they monitor the relationship between mass and space. Time’s existence can only be established and quantified by the measurement of these two parameters. Since time cannot be measured independently of mass and space, any change in the values of mass and space will cause the values of the intervals recorded by clocks to be transformed as well. Any change in mass alters this relationship and changes the rate at which clocks record the passage of time. Consider three identical pocket watches. We leave one alone and then increase the mass of the balance wheel in one watch and decrease the mass of the balance wheel in the other. We will find that the watch with the more massive balance wheel will run slower and the watch with the less massive wheel will run faster. These clocks are not interacting with or even measuring “time”. They are monitoring the relationship between mass and space that defines the conservation of angular momentum.
Physical time does not have a single homogenous flow but rather is measured as two distinct and unrelated phenomena that are measured as two completely different kinds motion. The two separate types of time flow that we cut into equal intervals with our clocks are gravitational time, that is derived from the constancy of a gravitational acceleration and inertial time that is derived from the constancy of angular momentum (mvr) of a body rotating about a axis.
Inertial time can be measured by the daily rotation of the earth on its axis or by the vibration of atoms in an atomic clock. Gravitational time can be measured by the yearly revolution of the earth around the sun or by the swing of a grandfather clock’s pendulum. The ability of a particular clock to measure the effects of one type of time is dependent on its ability to be isolated from the effects of the other type of time. Physical time is the concept used to generalize these two opposite time flows into the idea of a single one-dimensional temporal motion. Inertial time and gravitational time are the quantitative intervals measured by clocks and metaphysical time is the qualitative and dimensionless ideal principle common to both.
Duality of Time
The Living Universe produces two kinds of time that move in two distinct and separate time flows. Time is the general idea used to divide these two different kinds of motion into standardized intervals. Gravitational Time and Inertial Time are measured with two different kinds of clocks. The gravitational clock is based on a constant acceleration and the inertial clock is based on a constant momentum or angular momentum. Both of these clocks react in opposite ways to the earth’s gravity. A grandfather pendulum clock is an example of a gravitational clock and an atomic clock is an example of an inertial clock. If identical clocks are placed at the Dead Sea and at the top of Mount Everest it is found that the gravity pendulum clock runs slower and the inertial atomic clock runs faster at the top of Mount Everest. To synchronize the Everest pendulum clock to the Dead Sea clock it’s necessary to shorten the length of the pendulum and to synchronize the inertial clock it is necessary to decrease its mass. The adjusting variable for a gravitational clock is a change in space and the adjusting variable for an inertial clock is a change in mass.
Inertial Time versus Gravitational Time
Gravitational Time is the measure of the active change in gravitational motion and inertial time is a measure of the motion of a photon at the speed of light. Both measures of time are based on velocity constants. The speed of light inertial time is a very fast 1023 times greater than the very slow surface velocity gravity time.
Time is usually measured with inertial clocks. The most familiar inertial clock is the rotation of the earth into day and night intervals. Like all inertial clocks, the earth maintains its precise intervals through the conservation of angular momentum. The Earth slows its rotation slightly, over long periods of time, as it gains mass from the accretion of dust and meteorites.
For a simple experiment to demonstrate this effect consider a freely spinning disk like the turntable of a record player. Disregarding friction it will rotate with constant intervals. It has an angular momentum of Iw = mvr. If small weights such as pennies are dropped on the turntable, its velocity slows with the addition of each weight due to the conservation of angular momentum.
The history of time keeping is a steady parade of ingenious devices, all of which are either gravity clocks or inertial clocks. Ever since humans first developed the idea of time and began devising clocks to measure and record its passage, they have used both gravity and inertial clocks. Hourglasses, water clocks, and pendulum clocks are examples of gravity clocks. The daily rotation of the earth, an electronic digital clock, that records the rapid cyclical motion of groups of atoms, and a pocket watch, that measures the cyclical motion of a balanced weight, are three examples of inertial clocks. For about three hundred years after it was invented the pendulum gravity clock was the most accurate of clocks, but recently the inertial atomic clock has far exceeded it in accuracy.
These two kinds of clocks can never be combined because each measures a different quantity, and these two quantities are mutually exclusive. For example, the inertial clock provided by the Earth’s rotation would not be affected by a sudden change in the Earth’s acceleration of gravity, but would be slowed down by an increase in the earth’s mass. A pendulum clock would be speeded up by an increase in gravitational acceleration but would not be affected by the addition of mass to its pendulum. In fact it can be said that gravitational time and inertial time are opposites that flow in different directions. An example of this is the changing of clocks rate at different altitudes. An atomic clock or a light clock on mount Everest would run faster than they would at the Dead Sea. By contrast, a grandfather pendulum clock would run faster at the Dead Sea than on Mount Everest. Thus, the accuracy of any clock depends on isolating the kind of time being measured from the kind not being measured.
An interesting an inevitable balance occurs between sea level atomic clocks at different places on the surface of the Earth. Due to the oblate shape of Earth caused by its daily rotation, the force of gravity is greater at the poles and causes clocks to run slower there. The lesser gravity at the equator speeds up the clock that is then slowed down by the equatorial rotational velocity. Whereas inertial clocks run at almost the same rate between the north pole and the equator, gravitational pendulum clocks run faster at the poles than at the equator.
These two kinds of time show their opposite natures when we consider the transformations that occur to timekeeping devices when they are accelerated to extremely high velocities. When mass is accelerated, these two measures of time diverge from one another. As their absolute motion is increased, gravitational clocks run faster and inertial clocks run slower. These diverging time flows are not even symmetrical in that gravitational clocks increase at a rate that is the square root of the rate by which inertial clocks slow down. See Accelerated World.
The same thing happens to an atomic clock brought from the top of Mount Everest down to the Dead Sea. The clock now runs slower because the mass of its internal components has increased by being moved to a position of higher surface velocity. To get from the top of Everest to the Dead Sea, the clock must fall about 40,000 ft. The real dynamic effects of this fall increases the clock’s intrinsic gravitational velocity whether it is carried down by a Sherpa or sent down on a zip line. The clock is now moving upward at a faster rate than it was on Everest. At the Dead Sea the Lorentz transformation increases the mass of the faster moving clock. In order to conserve angular momentum, the increasing mass of the Cesium atoms slows the rate of their vibrational intervals.
In order to carry a clock to the top of Everest we must exert an upward force on the clock. This seems to accelerate us upward to a higher position on the mountain but in reality this force decelerates us to a position of lower intrinsic surface velocity.
We tend to think of gravity as just an acceleration. This is what we measure. However, accelerometers can make no absolute determination between acceleration and deceleration. An accelerometer’s measure of gravity is actually a balance between upward acceleration and downward deceleration. Another example of this mixed acceleration is the accelerometer reading on a rotating body. Centripetal force is half acceleration and half deceleration. When we use force to get up the mountain, that force is actually used to decelerate us to a lower absolute velocity and not to accelerate us a higher position.
The Light Clock
The light clock is any device that uses the speed of light to measure the passage of time. Intervals of time are the durations of photons traversing distances. The time measured by a light clock is the same as the time measured by a gravitational clock. It is linear momentum time rather than rotational angular momentum time.
There is a type of light clock that is a theoretical device proposed to illustrate the mechanics of time dilation caused by motion. It consists of two parallel mirrors positioned at right angles to the direction of motion. A photon is then reflected back and forth between the mirrors with each reflection becoming a tick of the clock. When the mirrors are at rest, the photon traces parallel paths back and forth between the mirrors. However, when the mirrors are moving, the photon must take a more diagonal zigzag path in order to keep up with the moving mirrors. It therefore takes a longer time for the photon to travel between the mirrors, causing the light clock to slow its rate of ticking. It can be shown that the slowed rate of a light clock would be identical to the decreased rate of an atomic clock for the same amount of motion.
The slowing of an inertial clocks caused by gravitational motion is essentially identical to the process of clock slowing caused by absolute motion. The gravitational surface velocity is about 11,200 m/sec (escape velocity). This velocity can be demonstrated by letting an object fall to earth from deep space. It will be moving at almost 11.2 km/sec when it hits the earth. It is this velocity that is used to calculate atomic clock slowing at the earth’s surface with the same basic formula (1/λ1-v2/c2) used to determine the clock slowing caused by inertial motion.
The light clock will perform just as if it was also traveling upward at 11.2 km/sec (.000037 C) and keep perfect time with an atomic clock. The light clock would be “slowed” by gravity by the same amount as the atomic clock. This upward gravitational velocity at the earth’s surface may not be readily apparent to an observer, but it certainly has a real effect on inertial clocks. Clocks run faster on a GPS satellite than they do on Earth because the escape velocity at the GPS orbit of 4.175 earth radii is only 5.47 km/sec.
General Relativity Clock Rates & Gravity Expansion Clock Rates
General Relativity predicts that clocks will slow their rates relative to their at rest rate in response to the earth’s gravitational field. This slowing is proportional to the gravitational potential at the clock’s location. A clock at the Dead Sea will run slower than one on Mount Everest. Gravitational Potential is a metaphysical quantity that cannot be measured directly. In order to determine the amount by which it will slow clocks, gravitational potential must be converted into the velocity known as escape velocity. Escape velocity for the earth is the upward velocity that a body will need to attain in order to escape the earth’s gravity from a particular location in its gravitational field. Looking at it another way, it is the velocity that a body will attain falling from deep space to the earth’s surface. The Earth’s escape velocity at sea level is about 11,179 m/sec. To visualize this in terms of General Relativity, we might say that curving gravitational space is being sucked into the earth’s surface at the rate of 11,179 m/sec.
Even though General Relativity makes very accurate predictions for the effects of gravity on clocks, it fails to consider that the opposite view may also make accurate predictions. Rather than being caused by dynamically curving space-time, gravity results from the curving and expansion of matter and time. This curvature of mass-time eliminates the need for the Equivalence Principle because stationary falling bodies are impacted by the earth’s surface as it accelerates upward. In this principle of Gravitational Expansion, the gravitational constant is characterized as an outward surface velocity for matter rather than as an acceleration or force. The rate that a body falls to earth is determined by the difference in the upward surface velocities (escape velocity) between the earth’s surface and the point above from where the body is dropped.
The principle of Gravitational Expansion is, in some ways, almost a mirror image of General Relativity. They are both based on opposite interpretations of the equivalence principle. General Relativity describes gravity as the changing geometry of space-time, and gravitational expansion views gravity as the changing geometry of mass-time. Even though both General Relativity and gravitational expansion predict exactly the same values for gravitational clock slowing, the mechanisms by which the slowing occurs are quite different. Whereas General Relativity theory is based on a non-local metaphysical assumption, gravitational expansion is a simple local physical principle that requires no theory to explain its measured dynamics. General Relativity is derived from magical metaphysical assumptions and gravitational expansion is the result of simple experimental measurements.
The Pound-Rebka Experiment is quite complex in its technical details but in principle it is very simple. Technically the experiment uses the Mossbauer Effect to detect extremely small differences in photons. Photons of a precisely determined wavelength were emitted at the top and bottom of the 22.5 meter high Jefferson Tower on the Harvard campus. When the photons from the top of the tower were measured at the bottom, their wavelengths were decreased (blue-shifted) by a small amount; and when photons from the bottom were measured at the top, their wavelengths were increased (red-shifted) by the same amount.
In this explanation of the Pound-Rebka experiment, it is proposed that gravity causes clocks (as well as all other physical processes) at the bottom of the tower to run slower than clocks at the top. This causes the emitter at the bottom to take more time to produce a photon and thus increase its wavelength by 2.5 x 10-15. The faster clock at the top of the tower makes the emitter produce its photons in shorter time intervals and with shorter wavelengths.
Both General Relativity Theory and the Principle of Gravitational Expansion predict that atomic clocks tick faster at high altitudes than they do at sea level by the same amount. The difference in the two theories is that the Principle of Gravitational Expansion shows the difference in clock rates to be a simple Lorentz Transformation time dilation. The mechanism by which clocks run slower at the bottom of the tower is the increased mass caused by the higher escape velocity (V = 11,178.86275 m/s). The lower escape velocity (V = 11,178.84301 m/s) at the top of the tower makes the internal parts of the clock have less mass and the clock runs faster by a proportionate amount. The amounts that the clock rates change can be calculated from the standard time dilation formula of Special Relativity (t = 1/λ1-V2/C2).
When a photon that is measured to have a wavelength of (λ = 1) is produced at the bottom of the tower it will still have a wavelength of (λ = 1) when it reaches the top. However, because the observer’s clock at the top of the tower runs slightly faster, he will measure the photon’s wavelength to be increased by 2.5 x 10-15. Also the faster clock at the top of the tower makes the emitter produce its photons with shorter wavelengths but the observer at the top measures them to have wavelengths of (l = 1) because of his faster clock. The observer at the bottom measures the shorter wavelength photons from the top at their correct shortened wavelength. The photons do not change their intrinsic wavelength as they travel from one gravitational potential to another.
The conclusion that must be reached here is that the results of the Pound-Rebka experiment are caused by the effects of absolute motion and not by relative motion. The difference in relative velocity between the top and the bottom of the tower is .01974 m/s, This velocity is not nearly enough to cause the changes in mass needed for the experiment’s results. However, this same velocity difference is the precise amount needed for the Pound-Rebka measurements when it is the difference between 11,178.86275 m/s and 11,178.84301 m/s. A difference of .01974 m/s between any two other velocities would not produce the Pound-Rebka results.
The clock interval for a velocity of 11,178.86275 m/s at the bottom is------------1.00000000069594839
The shorter clock interval for a velocity of 11,178.84301 m/s at the top is--------1.00000000069594593
The difference in clock intervals between the top and bottom of the tower is------.00000000000000246
This is almost exactly the red and blue shifts of 2.5 x10-15 measured by in the Pound-Rebka experiment.
Clock slowing for .01974 m/s difference between top and bottom --------1.0000000000000024600000
Lorentz Transformation clock slowing for velocity of .01974 m/s----------1.0000000000000000000043
Difference 572,093 times
Orbiting GPS Clocks
The changing rate of clocks caused by changes in both velocity and gravity are well documented and have been determined to a high degree of accuracy. Measuring the rates of orbiting atomic clocks is a highly developed science necessitated by the need to maintain the accuracy of the atomic clocks in the constellation of satellites in the Global Positioning System (GPS). The clocks in many different satellites must be designed to run as synchronously as possible with clocks on the earth’s surface. This is difficult because a clock’s rate is influenced by the kinetic time dilation caused by both its orbital velocity and the gravitational escape velocity at the orbit’s distance from the earth’s center. Since these two velocities are at right angles to one another it is necessary to calculate the velocity vector of their combined velocities to determine the absolute velocity responsible for the clock rate.
The clocks in the lowest orbits like the standard Space Shuttle orbit (1.046 radii) run the slowest because both their orbital velocities and escape velocities are greater than those of the higher orbits. Clocks speed up as they are placed in higher and higher orbits because they must be decelerated to both lower orbital velocities and lower escape velocities.
Clocks in an orbit of 1.5 earth radii run at the same rate as clocks at sea level because the combined time dilation effects of their orbital velocity and escape velocity are the same as those of the sea level escape velocity and the equatorial rotational velocity. Clocks at the poles run at almost exactly the same rate as clocks at the equator because the rotation of the earth causes the equator to bulge out. The greater gravity and escape velocity at the poles is balanced by the equator’s lesser gravity and escape velocity combined with its rotational velocity.
GPS satellites are placed in orbits of 4.175 earth radii so that they will circle the earth exactly twice each day. In order to synchronize the clocks in the GPS constellation, technicians must first synchronize the cesium clocks to be put in orbit with a cesium clock on Earth. They must then calculate the increased rate at which the GPS clock will run when it is placed in its desired orbit. This increased rate of GPS clocks is caused by the combined clock altering effects of the satellite’s orbital velocity and its escape velocity.
Since an orbit’s escape velocity and its orbital velocity are always at right angles to one another, the time dilation velocity is the satellite’s actual vector of the combination of these two velocities through gravitational space.
(tdV2 = oV2x esV2)
The time dilation velocity (tdV) squared is equal to the orbital velocity (oV) squared times the escape velocity (esV) squared.
The clock slowing effect at the GPS orbit is more than one-third less than it is at sea level. As a result, the GPS technicians must calibrate the orbiting clocks to record time at a slower rate than the sea level clocks by 4.479 parts in ten billion. Then when these clocks are put into orbit they will speed up to the same rate as the clocks at sea level. In this way, all clocks in the system will run at the same rate and maintain the single simultaneous reference time necessary for the proper operation of the system.
Geosynchronous communications satellites (Comsat) are placed above the equator in west to east orbits of 6.615 radii. In this orbit, a satellite revolves around the earth once every 24 hours and thus maintains a constant position above some point on the equator. The slowing effect on clocks in Comsat orbits is about 4.4 times less than it is on clocks at sea level.
When the Global Positioning System was first proposed, a number of Special Relativity enthusiasts said that it would never work because Special Relativity predicts that clocks moving relative to one another would run at different rates. They were of course wrong and the clocks in the GPS satellites all run at the same rate even though they are all moving relative to one another at constantly changing relative velocities. If motion is relative and not absolute, how do you explain that 24 GPS clocks, all moving in different directions, are able to keep the same time? If you do believe in relative motion how do you predict which clocks runs fast and which clocks runs slow?
Both General Relativity and the principle of gravitational expansion predict the same rate of time dilation for clocks under the influence of both motion and gravity. It is just that they use opposite gravitational assumptions to create the effect.
Time and Mass on an Accelerated World
To understand how gravitational time and inertial time diverge from one another with the transformation of mass, we will perform a thought experiment in which the rotating Earth is an example of an inertial clock and Earth’s acceleration of gravity is an example of a gravitational clock. Earth makes one revolution on its axis every day while a clock’s pendulum swings back and forth a certain number of times each day.
In our thought experiment, an accelerometer is placed vertically at the North Pole to measure the gravitational acceleration and a pendulum clock is placed beside it to record gravitational time. An inertial atomic clock registers time based on the cyclical inertial motions of atoms contained within it. Both clocks are synchronized and register the passage of time identically.
For the second part of our thought experiment we will imagine that another Earth replica called Kinetic Earth with a mass the same as Earth has been accelerated to 86.6% the speed of light. This is a very difficult task and requires 4 x 1041 joules of kinetic energy, which is equal to the sun’s total output for 10,000,000 years! At this velocity, a body’s kinetic mass is exactly equal to its rest mass so that the total mass of the Kinetic Earth replica is twice that of the Earth at rest..
On the Kinetic Earth, the acceleration of gravity has doubled, the gravity pendulum clock is running 1.414 times faster than on the Earth at Rest and the accelerometer shows four times as much acceleration. This is because the accelerometer’s movable weight has doubled in mass and now exerts four times as much force on the spring with the doubling of the earth’s gravity.
The Kinetic Earth is rotating on its axis at one half the speed of the Earth at Rest. The inertial atomic clock has also slowed to one half of the rate it had on the Earth at Rest. This slowing is caused by the same inertial process that slowed the Kinetic Earth’s rotation. This atomic clock slows as its atoms conserve angular momentum (Iw = mvr) as their masses increase with their velocity. As the linear velocity of a rotating body is increased, its equatorial velocity is reduced according to the formula: (V = Iw/mr). The atomic clock mistakenly shows that the day is still 24 hours long. However, the observer on Earth at Rest sees Kinetic Earth rotating only every 48 hours.
The internal body clock of the observer on Kinetic Earth has slowed to one half of its rest rate along with the atomic clock, and to him, the days seem to pass at their normal 24 hour rate, but he sees his gravity clock running at 2.28 times the rate of the inertial clocks. When he looks back at the Earth at Rest, he sees that it is rotating in just twelve hours. The observer’s weight has increased from a value of one on the Earth at Rest to a value of four on the Kinetic Earth because his mass, as well as the force of gravity, have both doubled.
With the Kinetic Earth accelerated to 86.6% the speed of light, the values for the equatorial velocities of both it and the particles of its matter would be reduced to one half of their values at rest. It is this effect that is responsible for the so called concept of Relativistic Time Dilation whereby an observer in motion experiences the passage of inertial time at a slower rate than an observer at rest. Metaphysical time is not in any way affected by changes in absolute motion. It is just that the dynamics of clocks are affected by changes in the masses of their components. These increases in mass cause gravitational pendulum clocks to run faster and inertial clocks to run slower.
The Living Universe Book
A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe
In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.