The Living Universe

Changing Constants

Circlon constant = θ
Mass length of Hydrogen = HM/ao
Electron/Proton size and mass ratio = E/P
Electron/Proton charge energy = iE
Fine Structure Constant = α = θ2

True Constants

Speed of Photons = Co
Planck’s Constant h = λMC
Photon Mass-Length Constant = Y =λM
Photon Angular Momentum = YC/2π
Dimensional Constant of Matter = θao

These twelve constants govern the mechanics of how the hydrogen atom emits and absorbs photons. The first seven of these are not true constants because in the Living Universe they evolve with the decreasing mass of the electron. The last five are true universal constants and do not change with the passage of time.

Circlon constant θ = 1/11.7062

The circlon constant ( θ=√α) is the square root of the fine structure constant and is the ratio dictating the size between the many layers of scale within the structure of the atom. θ is the size ratio between the circlon shape’s different layers of coils. The true meaning of the fine structure constant α has long been one of the greatest mysteries of physics. It has a dimensionless value of 1/137.036 and frequently pops up within the equations of quantum mechanics without anyone being able to determine exactly just where it came from. As we will see here, it defines the dimensions of the circlon structures that make up the electron and proton and the photon links between them. It is the size ratio between the circlon’s primary coils and its tertiary coil.

The Bohr Radius ao is the distance between the centers of gravity of the proton and electron within a ground state hydrogen atom. It has a value of 5.29177249 x 10-11 meter. When the distance of one Bohr radius is used as the unit of measurement, the whole spectrum of photons emitted by the hydrogen atom can be calculated to have wavelengths that are exact whole fractions of squares of whole numbers.

The Masslength of Hydrogen HM/ao

In the mechanics of gravity the masslength of Hydrogen interacts with the masslength of the photon Mλ

The Electron/Proton size and mass ratio E/P = 1/1836.152701

The electron/proton size and mass ratio E/P is the difference in Compton wavelengths between the electron and proton and the difference in their masses. This ratio has long been considered to be one of the fundamental constants of nature, but as we will see, it is the slow and constant change in its value that drives the evolution of the universe. Today the mass of the electron is Me=9.1093897x10-31kg and the mass of the proton is Mp=1.6726231x10-27kg. A pair of Compton wavelength photons is produced when a positron and electron or a proton and antiproton are annihilated. The wavelength of the electron’s Compton photon is λe=2ϖαao=2.42631058x10-12m and the proton’s is =1.32141002x10-15m.

The Electron-Proton Charge Energy iE = 13.5935 eV

The electron proton charge energy iE is the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom. It is the energy given off in photons when a ground state atom is formed or the energy needed to separate the electron from a ground state atom. The photon with this energy is called the intrinsic hydrogen photon and has a wavelength of λ∞ = 4ϖao/α =9.11267052x10-8m, an energy of 2.179x10-18 J and a mass of 2.4254x10-35 kg.

Classical Electron Radius re = 2.81794092 x 10-15 m

The classical electron radius re is the radius of the smallest circlon coils making up the structure of the electron.

Fine Structure Constant = α = θ2 = .00729735308 1/ α = 137.03605

Matter is constructed in many concentric layers. It is the fine structure constant that is the dimensional constant between these individual layers in the internal structure of matter and photons. The inverse size and mass ratio between the different layers of matter is θ = 11.7 Both of these numbers, 11.707 and 137 play a role in the structural interactions between particles of matter and photons.

The True Unchanging Constants of Nature

The Speed of Photons C = 299,792,458 m/sec

The speed of photons C is different from the speed of light c in that it is the velocity of all individual photons relative to one another. In the speed of light c it is always the velocity of photons relative to an observer.

In the interaction between the speed of photons and the velocity of mass the speed of light is always measured to be c. It can only be measured at C when the velocity of mass was zero.

The speed of light c is a general term used in several interactions. The speed of light C is just photons all travelling at the same velocity of c through a single inertial reference frame. All photons are emitted at photon rest. The inertial motion of the emitting body will cause Doppler shifts in the photons. Photons are not accelerated when they are emitted. They obtain their velocity from the opposite circular velocities of the two circlon shaped bodies that formed them (proton and electron) that formed them. The inertial motion of the atom that emits it has no effect on a photon’s velocity of C.

Planck’s Constant h = λMC = YC= 6.6260755 x10-34 J sec

When we measure Planck’s constant, it becomes apparent that it is not a true constant but rather the combination of two other constants, the speed of light C and the masslength Y of a photon Y = λM. The idea of Planck’s constant is based on the false assumption that the photon has no mass. When we divide Planck’s constant h into photon constant Y and the speed of light C, the Heisenberg uncertainty value of h/2ϖ becomes λMC/2ϖ and is no longer uncertain.

Photon Masslength Y = λM = 2.21022088x10-42 kg m

The photon masslength constant Y is the wavelength of any photon times its mass. The mass of a photon is equal to Y/λ. In the interactions of electrons Y= 2ϖMeαao

Y equals 2ϖ times the mass of the electron times the fine structure constant times the Bohr radius.

Photon Angular Momentum= h/2π =YC/2π =4.2182907x10-34

Photon momentum p = mv = MC is a value of momentum unique to each photon. Photon angular momentum λMC/2ϖ is a value common to all photons. It is also the quantity of angular momentum possessed by an electron at its ground state within an hydrogen atom. Electron angular momentum Iw = mvr = MeαCao is equal to the mass of the electron times the fine structure constant time the speed of light times the Bohr radius.

Dimensional Constant of Matter = θao = √αao = 4.5204726 x 10-12 m

The dimensional constant of matter θao is a true universal constant that remains the same over the period of cosmological time, even though the values of both θ and ao slowly change at an inverse rate with the passage of time.

Photon Angular Momentum YC/2π = 1.05457266 x 10-34

Photon angular momentum is the unit of angular momentum possessed by all photons. A photon’s angular momentum is equal to its mass times its wavelength times the speed of light divided by 2ϖ (Iω=(mλC/2ϖ). It is also the unit of angular momentum of an electron at its ground state MeCαao=YC/2ϖ.

The above drawing is a general schematic of how a hydrogen atom produces a photon. The proton and electron are composed of chain-like structures containing several circlon links. The largest links of each chain couple together and begin spinning in opposite directions. This photon link gets smaller and smaller as it spins faster and faster. The opposite velocities of the connecting charge chain links of an electron and proton accelerate evenly. When the opposite velocities of these two circlon shaped spinning bodies reach the speed of light they each break into two pieces. Half of the proton’s positive link joins with half of the electron’s negative link to emit a photon. The other two half links join together to maintain the circlon link between the atom’s proton and electron. This circlon link can then gain energy from the atom’s environment and increase its velocity until it too breaks into another photon.

The photon acquires its velocity of C from the two opposite circular motions of its negative and positive bodies being combined into a singular rectilinear motion. In addition to this motion at C, both bodies also spin at C in opposite directions along the axis of the photon’s path. Half of a photon’s energy comes from its spin and the other half comes from its velocity.

The Internal Structure of the Electron

It is quite difficult make realistic drawings depicting the mechanics of the hydrogen atom because of the vast size differences between the different links in its radiation chain. The photon link is the largest link in the chain and is over 32,000,000 times bigger than the electron’s smallest classical electron radius link.

The above drawing shows a somewhat more realistic depiction of the way that the circlon links are connected together. From the outside, the whole chain appears as just its largest link because the progressively smaller links are hidden inside of its coils.

As an electron couples together with a proton to form a hydrogen atom, it produces a photon in the process. The energy of this photon is governed by the electron’s initial velocity v toward the proton and the distance R between their centers. The greater the angular momentum inherent in these values Iω=MeVR, the less the energy of the photon. The electron can only couple with a proton within a limited number of values for velocity and radii.

The angular momentum inherent in the electron’s initial velocity is determined by the distance between their centers when the electron begins to pass the proton. The angular momentum at this point is the mass of the electron times its velocity times its distance from the proton (Iω=MVR). The energy inherent in this velocity is equal to E=MV2/2. Since there is no angular momentum inherent in the charge energy, the size of the orbit is determined by the angular momentum of the electron’s initial velocity and distance relative to the proton. As soon as the electron links to and forms an orbit with the proton, the charge energy moves it into an orbit where a photon can be emitted.

In order to conserve its fixed amount of angular momentum, the orbit must get smaller or larger as the energy inherent in the electron’s initial velocity interacts with charge energy between the electron and proton. If the electron’s orbital velocity is less than the equilibrium velocity, the charge energy will accelerate it to a smaller and faster orbit. If the electron’s velocity is greater than equilibrium velocity, then the charge energy will decelerate it to a larger and slower orbit.

In addition to changing the electron’s orbital velocity, the charge energy also increases the coil spin energy of the photon link in the charge chain. When a photon is emitted, half of its energy comes from the electron’s orbital velocity and the other half is in the form of this coil spin energy.

The photon is produced from the largest link in the atom’s radiation chain. This link is a circlon that combines the positive matter link of the proton and a circlon of the negative matter link of the electron. One-half of the charge energy increases the orbital velocity of these circlons in opposite directions and the other half of the energy increases the circlon’s internal coil spin velocity in opposite directions. Because these increases in coil spin velocity are in opposite directions, no net angular momentum is added to the atom by these accelerations. When a photon is emitted, it carries away equal amounts of this kinetic energy and spin energy plus one unit of the electron’s initial angular momentum.

A photon’s energy (E=MC2) is a balance between the kinetic energy of its mass moving at the speed of light (E=MC2/2) and the rotational kinetic energy of its mass spinning at the speed of light (E=Iω2/2). In the same way, when charge energy is added to the electron’s orbit it is one-half kinetic energy that increases the electron’s orbital velocity and one-half rotational kinetic energy that increases the opposite spins of the electron and proton.

Circlon Coil Structure

When energy is added to the electron in a hydrogen atom, the distance between the proton and electron decreases and the spin of the circlon coils increases. The Hydrogen atom is formed when the outer charge coils of a proton join with the charge coils of an electron to form a photon link This link is broken and reformed every time a photon is emitted or received.

In this drawing, the red coils make up the proton and the blue coils make up the electron. The large red and blue coils form the circlon link that holds the atom together. When energy is added to this circlon link it splits into a pair of photons. Usually one photon is emitted into space and the other remains within the atom as a stationary photon to maintain the circlon link.

The hydrogen atom’s 13.59 eV photon link is 32,000,000 times bigger than the electron’s smallest link, the classical electron radius.

The first step in the emission of a photon is for the spinning coils of the circlon to split in half. In this process, a part of the spinning coil motion is added together and converted to the rectilinear motion of the emitted photon.

One of the positive halves of the circlon joins together with the opposite negative half. They combine their opposite circular motions into a single rectilinear motion at C and form a photon. The two other halves remain within the atom as opposite spinning circlons. The electron then settles into an equalibrium orbit with a radius determined by its remaining angular momentum R=(Iω)2.

Electron vs Earth Orbits

In these drawings, some circular orbits of satellites around the earth are compared with the electron orbits within the hydrogen atom. In all cases equilibrium orbits are shown in which the centripetal acceleration is equal to the gravity or electrical force pulling the satellite or electron toward the center.

Both illustrations are drawn to the scales of the earth and the Bohr radius. Despite the great difference in size of approximately 20 orders of magnitude these orbits are identical in their mathematical descriptions.