### Difference between Expansion and Gravitation

What is the Difference between Gravitational Expansion and Gravitational Field Theory

Gravitational expansion is a simple mechanical motion and gravitation is a complex mathematical idea about systems of infinite force fields and curving dimensions of space-time.

After 300 years of being told that it is true, nearly everyone believes that gravity is a force of attraction between matter. Nobody has been able to tell just what gravity is but everybody thinks they know what gravity does.

At first appearance, the principle gravitational expansion might seem to be such a complex and irrational explanation of gravity that it should not even be considered as a candidate for the gravitational reality. The expansion of matter seems so counter-intuitive that while everyone can understand how it works, almost no one is able to believe that it could be true.

The overwhelming conclusion is that the gravitational field theories, like Newton’s and Einstein’s, are very well established and have been tested to be experimentally and mathematically perfect. While the structure and dynamics of the gravitational field might in question, the reality of the field’s actual existence is not to be questioned.

These field theories of gravity are theories based on metaphysical assumptions that are not primarily derived from experimental measurements. Experimental measurements are only used verify the gravitational field in an indirect way because the force of gravity can’t be directly measured.

In contrast to field theories, the principle gravitational expansion is not even a theory because there is no assumption made. The principle of gravitational expansion is just a physical measurement with no theory attached to it. This measurement shows that the surface of Earth has a constant upward velocity of 11,179 m/s. There is no need to assume any other quality of gravitational dynamics beyond this measurement. By just extrapolating this upward velocity into the future, we can illustrate the dynamics of the Earth’s gravity without the use of a theory. This is a measurement of the expanding matter within the Earth’s interior. We are not assuming the expansion of matter as in a theory. We are just measuring it.

Lets look at these two theories in terms of their respective simplicity of form as well their philosophical and psychological impact on the human imagination. Gravitational expansion is easy to understand but nearly impossible to believe. The gravitational field is widely believed but impossible to understand on a non-mathematical conceptual lever.

The principle of gravitational expansion is a measurement of the expansion of matter. In the case of the hydrogen atom, gravitational expansion is measured as a three dimensional velocity at the Bohr radius of 9.212 x 10^{-14} m/s away from the atom’s center of mass. At this velocity, it takes about 50,000 years for the size of a hydrogen atom to increase to the size of a basketball.

This is all there is to gravity. It is just an outward three dimensional velocity that is measured with an accelerometer to be either an upward acceleration or as a downward deceleration. Gravity is, in fact, just what we measure it to be. There is no need for metaphysical assumptions that cannot be measured. The mechanics of gravity are so mundane and simple that they can be completely understood by an uneducated child even though the child might not be very interested in the process. Imagine waiting 50,000 years for an atom just to grow to a size where we could see it. Gravitational expansion is just about the most boring and uninteresting miracle of nature that anyone could imagine.

Now let’s look at the gravitational field theories in terms of uneducated children and how to teach them accurately how gravitational fields actually work. Newton might tell a set of triplets that they were all connected by gravitational forces of attraction. Newton would tell them that in experimental measurements these forces acted like invisible elastic strings attached between each pair of atoms in the triplets’ bodies. The body of a 50 kg child has about 10^{29} protons and electrons. Each of these particles must have a string-like connection to each of the protons and electrons in the other two twins. Imagine these triplets floating a short distance apart in deep space wit 1058 tiny gravitational strings slowly pulling them together.

If this seems like a more complicated concept than these children can comprehend, Newton could explain gravity in terms of a mathematical devise known as a field. In this explanation, all of the individual gravitational strings attached to each triplet can be generalized into three individual gravitational fields that connect each triplet. In reality each pair of particles must maintain its own gravitational string or field. This becomes apparent when the triplets begin playing frisbee and the gravitational field of the frisbee passes back and forth between them.

Einstein would tell the triplets that it wasn’t strings or fields that pulled them together but four dimensional space-time continuums that surrounded each triplet. The triplets are pulled together as the space-time in between them is curved and dissolved. To work according to experiment there must be a separate four dimensional space continuum for each proton and electron. It is only for the purposes of mathematical calculation that these separate continuums can be combined into single units.

Whether it be strings, fields or a continuum, what appears miraculous is the nature of the perfect and immutable gravitational connection between all bodies of matter. The gravitational force between any two bodies of mass in the universe is dependant only on their mass and the distance between them. This force is not affected in any way by the presence of other mass bodies and fields that might reside directly between these bodies.

The philosophical implications of whether the force of gravity points up or points down are enormous. If it points down, then gravity is this non-intuitive, virtually infinite, space-like force field with miraculous if not magical properties. Both Newton and Einstein invented mathematical ideas that required gravity to point down, but neither was able to offer any kind of experimental measurement that would verify their concepts. Also, neither was able provide any kind of actual physical mechanism that could make their ideas of gravity work.

If gravity points up, just like we measure it to do, then there is no magical gravitational field and gravity just becomes a simple local expansion of matter and time that occurs to all atoms simultaneously. The actual physical mechanism of gravity then becomes so simple that it can be easily explained to a small child. By walking, running, jumping and playing ball the child can learn just how gravity works with a far better understanding than either Newton or Einstein.

### The Living Universe Book

## A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.