Home About J.Carter Questions and Answers Store Contact Us

The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

Supernovas as Proof of the Absolute Motion of Photons

By almost all accounts, a supernova is a gigantic explosion occurring near the end of a large star’s life cycle. Supernovas have been observed within the Milky Way as well as within some of the most distant galaxies in the universe. Unlike the much narrower and very precise photon spectrum of the 2.7° CBR, the intense burst from a supernova contains a very random mixture of photons composed of everything from gamma rays all the way to radio photons. By its very nature, we must assume that the photons received from a supernova explosion were emitted from very rapidly moving atoms and larger chunks of matter all traveling in different directions. Thus, the observation of a supernova provides ample proof that all photons move through space at exactly C, regardless of their wavelength or the motion of their source.

If this were not true, supernova observations would take on a completely different character. The duration of a type Ia supernova light curve is basically the same whether it comes from within our own galaxy or from one that is billions of light years away. A type Ia supernova takes about one week to reach maximum intensity and then about five weeks to fade away. If all the photons didn’t move away at exactly the same velocity, then the duration of distant explosions would appear to be much longer than the closer ones. In fact, if photon velocities varied by just a few meters per second, it would make a distant supernova appear to last for years instead of just a few weeks.

Back to top


Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.