### The Nature of the Photon

The photon that is the basic form of mass in the Living Universe. It is a matter antimatter pair. A photon contains two equal pieces of positive and negative mass. A hydrogen atom a big piece of positive mass (proton) connected to a small piece of negative mass (electron). When a photon is emitted by an atom, its mass is half positive mass from the proton and half negative mass from the electron.

The nature of the photon should be just what we measure it to be and nothing more. All of our measurements show that the photon has mass. The metaphysical assumption of the massless photon is completely without any experimental verification. Experimental physics has measured the photon in nearly every way possible. Collectively these measurements make up the nature of the photon.

Physics begins and ends with the reality of the photon. Everything we know of in the universe, that can be observed and measured, can be explained in terms of the interaction of the appropriate photons. In fact, in order to read this page, you must engage in a complicated manipulation of a very narrow band of photons called visible light. The nature of the photon is an absolute set of parameters that must be fitted in to any arbitrary concept of the photon.

The photon has many different basic measurable parameters and constants that need to be constructed into any concept of the photon. This concept of a photon is based on these characteristics and is a non-field, quantum mechanical, matter/antimatter particle pair. It always moves with wavelike motion through absolute Newtonian space at C. This photon is a completely mechanical particle that is not unlike the human concept of a simple machine.

### Ten Photon Parameters

Velocity C

Mass M

Energy E = MC^{2} = hf

Wavelength λ

Photon constant Y = Mλ

Momentum p = MC

Frequency f = C/λ

Dimensional constant √a a_{o}

Constant angular momentum MλC/2π = Iw

Planck’s Constant h = E/f = MλC = YC

Each photon is comprised of two hollow mass strings of precisely the same lengths l. These positive and negative strings spin in opposite directions and undulate with a wave-like motion as the photon moves at C. Half of the photon’s kinetic energy is contained in the opposite spins of these strings and the other half is contained in the motion of the photon’s mass through space.

The most basic experimental fact of the photon is that all photons travel at exactly the speed of light relative to each other within a single inertial reference frame. This has been demonstrated by a number of measurements. Binary pulsars show that the rapid motion of a photon’s source has no effect on its velocity of C through space. All photons are emitted at rest, regardless of the motion of their source. The Doppler shift of photons shows that any motion of the photon’s source changes its energy and wavelength. The timing of supernova explosions shows that even photons from the most distant supernova all travel at the same speed as photons today. The 2.7° CBR shows that the Doppler effect allows us to measure the earth’s absolute motion relative the photon emission rest frame.

The most amazing thing about the photon’s nature is the unimaginably vast rang of the photon’s mass-energy-wavelength relationship. Very energetic cosmic ray photons have over thirty orders of magnitude more energy than broadcast radio photons and these are not even the limits of the spectrum. All of these photons have the same exact ratios of mass, energy and wavelength, and each has own one dimensional space.

A basic way of generating photons is the radiation spectrum of the hydrogen atom. The most basic are the ionization photons formed when an electron couples to a proton to form a hydrogen atom. The outer circlon shaped ionization coils of the proton connect with the outer coils of the electron. The combination of these two sets of coils forms a circular photon that holds the atom together. This circular photon then divides in two with one regular photon being emitted into space and with the other remaining as a circular photon to hold the atom together. This process is repeated when energy is added to the atom. This is just one of the many ways that photons can be generated but in each case the photons get half of their mass from an electron and the other half from a proton.

### The Concept of the Photon

A theory of the photon is an arbitrary set of assumptions and attributes used to account for its nature. A concept of the photon was inserted into the theory of Special Relativity almost as an afterthought. It was initially a mere mathematical construct used to explain the photoelectric effect. Its attributes were selected to make it compatible with both the classical wave theory of light and the preestablished postulates of Special Relativity.

If we construct a concept of the photon based solely on the vast amount of experimental data establishing its nature, rather than trying to pour it in a preconceived mold, we find we have a photon that can be quite different from the ones imagined by Special Relativity and Quantum Field Mechanics. A photon with mass provides the Living Universe with a standard for absolute motion and provides a continuity of mass in the interactions between photons and atoms. Without a need to make transformations between mass and energy there is no need for the idea of the field to initiate these transformations. In the Living Universe the physical interaction of the mass of the photon eliminates the need for any field interactions for the transfer of energy. When a photon has mass, there is no longer any need for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle or Plank’s constant. When a photon is absorbed by an atom it adds its mass to the atom’s mass but retains its basic own identity within the atom until it is emitted and takes its mass back from the atom.

### The Living Universe Book

## A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.