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The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

Einstein’s Wrong Direction of Gravity

Einstein may have just misinterpreted the true meaning of his E=MC2 equation, but with gravity, Einstein got the idea completely backwards. He attempted to transform gravitational acceleration from a simple physical phenomenon into a paradoxical metaphysical principle by introducing the equivalence principle. Using this principle as “truth”, he separated gravity from acceleration and imagined that the measured upward acceleration of the earth’s surface was really an attraction caused by a curving four dimensional space-time continuum.

Einstein refused to accept that gravitational acceleration was identical to and not just the equivalent of other forms of acceleration. He believed that falling objects actually accelerated downward toward a stationary earth’s surface, even though this imaginary concept couldn’t be verified by any experiment. He wasn’t able to imagine that gravity could be just a simple upward acceleration caused by the gradual expansion of matter. It is this lapse in judgement that is the most peculiar aspect of Einstein’s whole career. He was certainly entitled to believe in his curved space theory of gravitational attraction. It just seems impossible that he could arrive at General Relativity without first encountering gravitational expansion and then offering a reason for rejecting it.

Einstein Was Wrong about Gravitational Potential

The primary thing that is wrong with General Relativity is the whole metaphysical concept of “gravitational potential”. Both Newton and Einstein proposed that all points in space contain a vector of acceleration that is determined by the combined gravity of all the mass in the universe. For points near the earth, this acceleration vector points towards the earth’s center. It was proposed that any body of mass placed at a point will begin accelerating along that point’s gravitational potential vector. Gravitational potential is usually seen as a continual, non-local property of space-time that is connected to all mass and causes bodies of matter to accelerate toward the nearest concentration of mass.

The problem with the gravitational potential’s acceleration vector is that it is caused by an imaginary force that can’t be measured. There is no possible way to measure a falling body’s acceleration vector. An accelerometer shows a falling body to be at rest. Force is equal to mass times acceleration F=MA. However, for the “acceleration” of mass produced by a gravitational potential there is no measurable force for the other side of the equation.

When we measure the earth’s surface gravity what do we get? A upward acceleration of 9.8 m/sec2 and an escape velocity of 11,179 m/sec. It is the relationship between these two measured values that can explain the earth’s gravitational interaction. Gravity is caused by the gradual changes in the physical geometry of matter as it expands.

Falling bodies can only move in the imagination of someone who can also imagine that the accelerating surface of the earth is at rest. If we trust our senses and our measurements, it is easy to see that the cause of gravity is merely an upward motion of the earth’s surface.

This is what we measure gravity to be. To imagine another cause for gravity, we must enter a metaphysical realm beyond the possibility of physical measurement. When we measure surface gravity the force comes from within the earth. Gravity theories place the location of the earth’s gravitational “force” out into the infinite reaches of surrounding space and call it a gravitational field or an aether. With the principle of gravitational expansion the earth’s physical gravitational force does not extend beyond it surface. The geometrical force of gravitational motion along the fourth vector makes a virtual connection to the rest of the universe.

The only gravitational acceleration vector that is possible to measure with as a force is the upward acceleration of the earth’s surface. Gravity is always measured as an upward acceleration caused by the upward force of the earth’s gravitational expansion. With this absolute and measurable local gravitational force, why was it necessary for Einstein to go on and assume a non-local gravitational potential acceleration contained within the fabric of space that can’t even be detected?

Einstein’s Equivalence Principle

Einstein’s Equivalence Principle is false because gravitational motion and inertial motion are not equivalent. They are physically exactly the same and can’t be experimentally separated from one another. The Equivalence Principle presents a paradox where the direction of the force of gravity is supposed to be downward even though it is measured to be upward. Gravity and inertial acceleration are supposed to be opposites that are otherwise physically equivalent.

Gravity and inertia are not opposites, nor are they equivalent. Gravity and inertia have exactly the same physical parameters and their forces are in the same directions. Falling bodies do not move downward and have no physical forces exerted on them, rather it is the earth that falls up. Gravity is a push from within the earth and does not extend beyond the earth’s surface.

The gravity interaction between the earth and the sun is not physical but geometrical. The earth’s orbital velocity vector and the sun’s escape velocity are at right angles to one another. The earth appears to remain the same distance from the sun even though it is moving away from the sun at the same rate that the sun and earth expand into one another. Even though a body’s orbital velocity vector is an inertial straight line, gravitational motion along the fourth vector makes orbits appear as circles or even spirals.

Orbiting bodies appear to circle the earth along a hidden fourth vector of motion. This fourth vector of motion is equivalent and analogous to Einstein’s non-intuitive concept of four dimensional space-time. The calculated results of General Relativity and the principle of gravitational expansion are usually just the same. The difference is in different interpretations of the geometry of space and time. We could say that Einstein and Newton just wanted the direction of the gravitational force to point the wrong way. They wanted the force of gravity to come from the far reaches of the universe instead of from just under their feet.

Einstein’s Miracle of Logic

The principle of gravitational expansion is so intrinsically tied to Einstein’s Equivalence Principle that it seems at some point he would have had to confront it as the possible truth behind equivalence. Einstein used the four-dimensional math of expansion to explain gravity, but he refused to even consider that these equations and experiments could explain gravity in a more common sense way. To me, it seems impossible that neither Einstein nor any of his followers ever brought up or even considered the gravitational expansion interpretation of the equivalence principle. Einstein was so eager to embrace paradox as truth that he couldn’t imagine an alternative. Perhaps gravitational expansion presented such a formidable psychological barrier to his belief systems, that Einstein adopted his equivalence principle without ever imagining the possible existence of another alternative. Surely, Einstein made this mistake. People make mistakes all the time. The impossible thing to imagine here is that everyone else also made the same mistake.

The amazing thing is not whether or not the principle of gravitational expansion might be true. The real mystery here is the pure logic involved in examining this principle. How is it possible that this idea could be so completely ignored when there is such a large body of positive experimental evidence verifying it. Simple logic does not allow one to conclude that gravity is just equivalent to acceleration without first considering that gravity really is acceleration.

In contrast, the evidence verifying General Relativity is both negative and paradoxical. Most of the so called experimental conformations of General Relativity and the Equivalence Principle are in the form of null results.

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Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.