Home About J.Carter Questions and Answers Store Contact Us

The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

The Speed of Gravity

The first question that we must ask, once we allow ourselves to consider the principle of absolute motion and the gravitational expansion of matter, is how fast does matter expand? To determine this value, we must first establish a relationship between space, time, and gravity by measuring the period of a pendulum at sea level with a length of one meter and find it to be approximately two seconds. (P=2π√L/g = 2.006 sec). We then use this value to determine the upward acceleration of the Earth (g = 4π2 L/P2 ) to be 9.807 m/s2 and the radius of the Earth (R) to be 6,371,316m. With these two values, we can determine how long it would take for the radius of the Earth to double in size by calculating how long it would take the Earth’s surface to fall upward a distance of one radius. (1T = √2R/g = 1,139.9 sec = 19 minutes). After making this calculation and then waiting 19 minutes for the dimensions of the Earth and our pendulum to double, we realize that this value can no longer be valid because now the meter bar in Paris is twice as long as it was when we started. This means that the rate of time must also have slowed because our one-meter pendulum still has a period of 2 seconds. Also, the acceleration of gravity (g = 4π2L/P2 = 1/2) must also have slowed its rate to one-half.

As matter expands, the absolute rate of time slows at a proportionate rate. The rate of 19 minutes is in minutes that are absolute to the point in time at the beginning of the doubling. Also, this value does not take into account that as altitude is increased, both the acceleration of gravity (g) and the surface velocity (VS) are decreased. At an altitude of one radius above the earth’s surface (g = 1/4) its surface velocity is (VS = √1/2 = .707) its value at sea level.

To determine the interval of clock time that it takes for the gravitational expansion of the earth to double its radius we must take into account these two changing values. To calculate the time it would take for the Earth’s surface to fall upward a distance of one radius we must take the difference in distance traveled between its sea level surface velocity of 11,179 m/s. (EV = √2Rg) and the surface velocity of 7,904. 7 m/s at one radius above.

To an outside observer watching the Earth expand, the doubling would seem to take longer because if he watched and measured the amount of time that it takes for a body one radius above the Earth’s surface to “fall” to sea level, he would observe that it takes over a half hour to reach the Earth’s surface. To obtain this value, we subtract the surface velocity at 2 radii (2 REV = 1RE V/√2 = 7,905 m/sec) from the sea level surface velocity (11,179 - 7,905 = 3,274 m/sec). This gives us the average velocity that the surface of the earth is moving upward toward the falling body. One radius divided by this velocity gives us a time of fall of R/3,274 = 1,946 sec = 32.4 minutes. This value is also equal to (19 + 13.4 = 32.4).

The 32.4-minute value is in nonlinear units of gravitational time as measured by a clock, in which each consecutive interval has a longer duration. It follows from this that if we are to quantify the gravitational phenomenon in terms of clock time, we must characterize it not as a force, acceleration or attraction but as a velocity. The most logical unit to identify as the quantum for gravitational motion (GV ) is the surface velocity of the hydrogen atom at the Bohr radius. It is equal to 9.2116013 x 10-14 m/sec (GV = √2ao g). The acceleration of gravity (g) at the Bohr radius is 8.0175 x 10-17 m/sec2 (g = GV2/2ao ). The constant for gravity is not a force but the velocity at this radius. This is the escape velocity at the Bohr radius (ao =5.29177249 x 10-11 m) which is the size of the mechanical bond between the proton and electron at the ground state of hydrogen.

Thus, within the atoms of the Earth, the protons and electrons constantly grow larger at a velocity of 9.2116013 x 10-14 m/sec and the combination of these individual velocities creates the Earth’s sea level surface velocity of 11,179 m/sec (Vs = √2gR). While surface velocity and escape velocity have exactly the same values for points at or above the earth’s surface, for points inside the earth, the surface velocity decreases to zero at its center, whereas escape velocity continues to increase to a maximum at the center. Escape velocity is the upward velocity needed for a space ship to escape the upward velocity of the earth’s gravity.

Infinite Speed of Gravity

In his book, DARK MATTER,MISSING PLANETS & NEW COMETS, Tom Van Flandern, goes into some detail describing experiments designed to determine the velocity at which the gravitational interaction takes place between heavenly bodies. Newton considered this speed of gravity to be infinite and Einstein believed it to be the speed of light. Observation of the planets in the solar system as well the revolution of binary pulsar show the velocity of the gravitational interaction to be, if not infinite, then at least many orders of magnitude greater than the speed of light.

If we consider gravity to be the result of the expansion of matter, then there is no direct “physical” interaction between heavenly bodies and therefore the velocity of the gravitational “interaction” between bodies is infinite because it occurs to each body at the same instant. It is gravitational synchronicity that makes Van Flandern’s “speed of gravity” infinite.

Back to top


Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.