# The Living Universe

## A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

### The Uncertainty Principle

The whole reason that quantum mechanics needs the uncertainty principle lies in its failure to divide Planck’s constant into its component parts. h = M λ C = YC. Y is the constant for masslength (Y=Mλ). Its value is the mass (M) times the wavelength (λ) of any photon. Planck’s Constant provides a parameter for a point particle. When it is divided into masslength Y, the particle is no longer a point defined by Planck’s constant but a shape defined by masslength. Quantum mechanics needs Planck’s constant and the uncertainty principle because it fails to give mass to the photon and physical dimensions to the proton and electron. All particles are defined by their masslength not just by their mass or wavelength separately. Both photons and atoms have masslengths that interact to emit and absorb photons. By giving all particles mass, size and shape, the uncertainty of a point particle’s position becomes merely its volume. Everywhere that the Uncertainty principle appears, it is rendered redundant by replacing Planck’s constant (h) with the masslength constant (Y).

### Photons as Bullets

Photons can be viewed as ballistic projectiles that are similar in concept to bullets and artillery shells. Just like bullets, photons come in a vast array of energies and sizes. Bullets cover a size range of about four orders of magnitude. A bullet can weigh anywhere from less than a gram to several thousand kilograms. The range of the photon spectrum covers a great many orders of magnitude to which there is no limit in principle. A photon can have a wavelength greater than the size of the sun or it can have a wavelength much smaller than a proton.

The great difference between bullets and photons is their inverse size to mass ratio. The photons with the smallest wavelengths have the greatest mass and energy and the very largest photons have fleetingly small masses and energies. If guns shot photons, a BB gun would have the power of a large artillery shell and the battleship Missouri’s 16 inch guns would eject soap bubbles.

The dynamics of both photons and bullets are much the same in that the energy of each is divided into two distinct components. A bullet has two separate quantities of energy. The motion of its muzzle velocity and the spin energy caused by the rifling in the barrel. The energy of the muzzle velocity is relative to other reference frames but the spin energy is absolute to all frames. The main difference between a bullet and a photon is that the energy of a bullet’s muzzle velocity is usually much greater than its spin energy. With a photon, the energy from its velocity at C is exactly equal to the energy of its rotational spin at C. (E = MC2/2 + Iw2/2 =MC2). This is true only relative to photon rest. When a photon is measured in a moving frame, only the energy of its velocity is Doppler shifted. As with the bullet, the photon’s spin energy remains constant in all non-rotating frames.

### Indeterminacy Principle

It was this non common sense inverse ratio between a photon’s energy and wavelength that Heisenberg seized upon to develop his Uncertainty Principle. At first it was called it the Indeterminacy principle because it placed an intrinsic limitation on what it was possible to measure or observe with photons. When we want to catch a baseball that is thrown toward us, we observe its motion toward us by visible light photons that reflect from it and are then absorbed by our eyes. These photons are so small and have so little energy that they have no noticeable effect on the trajectory of the ball.

Now let us consider a case where we don’t have photons and must determine the ball’s position and trajectory by bouncing rifle bullets off it. In this case, we might determine the ball’s position when a bullet bounced off but we could know very little about its trajectory because the impact of the bullets would greatly change its direction of motion. This is what happens when we use photons to measure the motion and position of an atom. If we use photons that have large wavelengths, they will have little energy and thus not very much effect on the atom’s motion. However, these very large photons will give us only a fuzzy view of the atom’s position. By contrast, if we use very small and energetic photons we are able to “see” the atom’s exact position but its motion will be changed considerably each time an energetic photon interacts with it.

The Indeterminacy Principle shows that, because of the fundamental physical properties of matter in general and photons in particular, it is not possible to confine them to a “point” but only to an “area of uncertainty”. The fact that we can’t make certain accurate measurements at the atomic level does not necessarily lead to the conclusion that these various atomic attributes do not have precise values until they are measured. However, this is what Heisenberg and Bohr concluded when they established the Uncertainty Principle. If we do not know and can not measure a certain atomic parameter except within a certain range, then the Uncertainty Principle states that the parameter is uncertain within the range of (h/2π) and in reality a specific value for it does not even exist.

Photons come in an enormous range of wavelengths and energies, yet when we measure them we can always obtain precise values. Do these photons actually have precise wavelengths and energies as they travel through space at C prior to being measured? The Uncertainty principle states that they do not. A photon can be red shifted or blue shifted by the observer’s motion away from or toward the photon’s source. The Uncertainty principle states that these photons have no specific color as they travel through space and are neither red nor blue before being measured. It is true that we cannot know the wavelength of a photon before we measure it, nor when we do measure it, can we know what its intrinsic wavelength was relative to photon rest. This is because the observer can not know his exact absolute motion and therefore can’t tell if the photons he measures are red shifted of blue shifted.

In the Living Universe, all photons have a precise intrinsic wavelength as they move through photon rest at C. Photons can be red or blue shifted to any value by the absolute motion of an observer. When Planck’s constant (h) is replaced with the masslength constant (Y=mλ), the Uncertainty principle disappears. When we replace a point with a shape, it is the old uncertainty principle that now defines the shape. There are no point particles. Particles have a shape defined by their masslength. The masslength of all particles is exact at all times and the only uncertainty lies in our inability to accurately measure them.

A golf ball rolling down a cobblestone road passes over one stone at a time and has a changing position that corresponds to individual stones, whereas a Cadillac traveling down the same road has a position corresponding to a changing group of many stones but never a single stone. The Uncertainty Principle results from the quantum theorist’s desire to view the Cadillac as a golf ball and the inherent inability to confine its position to a single cobblestone.