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The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

Absolute Motion of Photons in the 2.7°CBR

The primary experimental proof for the absolute photon rest frame is the vast number of photons that make up the 2.7° Cosmic Blackbody Radiation. These photons make up as much as 99% of all the photons in the universe and they are distributed in a virtually perfect blackbody spectrum for a temperature of 2.726° Kelvin. Careful measurement of this spectrum reveals a dipole anisotropy that shows a slightly higher temperature in the direction of the constellation of Leo and a correspondingly lower temperature in the opposite direction near the constellation of Aquarius. If we view these temperature differences as red and blue Doppler shifts, then it becomes apparent that we (the solar system) are moving with absolute motion in the direction of Leo at a velocity of about 375 km/sec. Since the rotation of the Milky Way galaxy moves the solar system in a somewhat opposite direction to this motion, the actual motion of the Milky Way relative to the 2.7° CBR is about 600 km/sec or .002 C. Since most of the photons in the universe are 2.7° CBR photons, it would seem quite unlikely that the other photons produced by stars and by us here on earth could move at C within different reference frames.

Both their extremely even directional distribution and their precise blackbody curve should convince anyone that the 2.7° CBR photons are all moving at exactly C relative to one another within the same inertial reference frame. If these photons were not all moving at exactly the same velocity, then they would quickly lose their virtually perfect black body distribution curve. All other astronomical photon observations, such as red shifted spectra, would be blurred beyond recognition without a universally common value for C as well as a universal position of photon rest.

A Proposed Test of Absolute Rest

In a thought experiment, we accelerate (actually decelerate) one space probe to a velocity of 375 km/s in the direction of Aquarius. We then accelerate a second probe to 375 km/s in the direction of Leo. The Aquarius probe would then reach a position of absolute rest where the dipole anisotropy would disappear. The 2.7 CBR would be exactly the same temperature in all directions. The Leo probe would be moving toward Leo at an absolute velocity of 750 km/s and the dipole anisotropy would be doubled in value.

The earth and each probe have identical light bulbs that produce a precise spectrum of green photons with a wavelength of λ =1. The Doppler shift causes these and all other moving light bulbs to emit photons of different wavelengths in different directions. The bulb attached to the earth emits red shifted photons in the direction of Aquarius and blue shifted photons in the direction of Leo.

Even though the Earth light bulb emits different colored photons in different directions, an observer on earth would only be able to see green photons. The Doppler shift caused by the earth’s motion causes all photons from the bulb to be measured as green. Likewise, the earth’s motion away from them, causes the green photons from the Aquarius light to be red shifted to the same value as the photons from the Leo light. In actuality, the photons from the Leo light are blue-shifted by the earth’s motion toward them. The photons leaving the Leo light toward earth have twice as much intrinsic red shift as they do when measured at the earth.

Photons emitted from the lights on either probe would be observed on Earth to be red shifted by an increase in wavelength and a decrease in energy of .00125. Likewise, photons emitted from the earth would be observed at either probe to be red shifted by the same amount. Since both of these sets of photons are measured to have the same wavelength of 1.00125, is it possible that they can have the same intrinsic wavelengths as they pass each other while traveling through space?

The relative motion of Special Relativity tells us that these photons can have no intrinsic wavelength until they are measured. Special Relativity claims that we can not know to what degree each of these two sets of photons are red shifted.

This is not true, because if the observers on earth measure the 2.7° CBR coming from the direction of the Aquarius space probe, they see that this radiation is also red-shifted by 1.00125 when compared with 2.7° CBR photons coming at right angles to the direction of the probe.

On the other hand, an observer on this probe would see photons emitted from earth to have a red-shift of 1.00125 but no shift at all in the 2.7° CBR photons coming from any direction. An observer on the Leo probe would also see earth photons shifted to λ=1.00125. However, that observer would measure the 2.7° CBR to be warmer than usual in the direction of Leo and cooler toward Aquarius.

In the Living Universe all photons have a precise wavelength and velocity relative to all other photons and a different measured wavelength and relative velocity in interactions with moving observers. Even if it were possible for some photons to go slower or faster than C, it would be nearly impossible to detect this. Unless we use the 2.7° CBR as the standard for both rest and the speed of light, it would not be possible to tell if a Doppler effect is caused by either the motion of the observer or of the source or a combination of both.

When we measure a non-Doppler shifted photon, we can determine its wavelength (λ= h/MC) and its energy (E=MC2 ). These values are only valid at photon rest. When we are moving relative to photon rest, the photons that we measure are Doppler shifted from their true intrinsic parameters. The wavelength λ = h/MC+/-V and energy E=M(C+/-V)2 that we measure are different from the photon’s true wavelength and energy because of our velocity either toward or away from the photon’s motion at C.

Because all photons we measure are Doppler shifted to one degree or another it would be impossible to determine if some photons were actually moving faster or slower than C. The primary criteria for measuring a photon’s parameters is the assumption that it is moving at c relative to the measuring instrument.

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Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.