Home About J.Carter Questions and Answers Store Contact Us

The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

The Big Bang Paradoxes

The group of theories that collectively make up the Standard Model of the Big Bang have become generally accepted by the cosmological community even though they contain many paradoxical and contradictory conclusions as well as several gross violations of the most well established laws of physics. Of these many paradoxes, the ones listed below are perhaps the most difficult for the Big Bang theorists to reconcile with the established laws of physics.

The Time Paradox

The time and distance that it would take for the approximately z = 2000 red shift of the 2.7° Cosmic Blackbody Radiation are far greater than the Big Bang’s estimates of the universe’s age and size. The most distance galaxies and quasars have red shifts of less than z =10. These are considered to be at the outer extremities of the universe and near the beginning of the Big Bang. This makes it is very difficult to explain how the 2.7° CBR photons could have become red shifted nearly 2000 times in the short period of time between the creation of matter and the formation of the first stars and galaxies. When they were formed, the photons of the 2.7° CBR were mostly from the radiation spectrum of the hydrogen atom. Today that spectrum is about 6000° K. The Big Bang theory proposes that the 2.7° CBR photons were the result of a great burst of radiation that occurred when all of the electrons and protons in the early universe coupled together and began emitting photons for the first time. This part of the idea is true. Where the Big Bang theory goes wrong is in trying to assume that the 2.7°K CBR began at a temperature of 3000°K rather than at the 2.7°K that it is today.

The age of the universe in Big Bang theory is determined by measuring the increasingly red Doppler shifts determining the value of Hubble constant. Then the assumption is made that these are real Doppler shifts caused by the outward expansion velocities of the distant galaxies. This assumed velocity implied by the Hubble constant is then reversed and it is calculated how long it would take for all of the matter in such a contracting universe to converge on a point. The latest measurements of the Hubble constant place the age of the universe at about thirteen billion years, yet the most distant quasars and galaxies, that we can observe, appear from their red shifts to be at distances of over twelve billion light years. How is it possible that light photons emitted by the hydrogen atoms in a star, some twelve billion years ago, are red shifted by less than ten times and the light photons emitted by the same atoms less than a billion years earlier are red shifted by nearly 2000 times? This problem can not be explained by the Guth inflation theory. In the standard theory, inflation occurred during the first second of the Big Bang and the CBR was not produced until about 300,000 years later. In the Living Universe, neither the CBR photons nor the light from distant galaxies has been Doppler shifted.

The Space Paradox

Both the Hubble red shift and the virtually perfect blackbody distribution curve of the 2.7°CBR photons are impossible to reconcile with the well established laws of physics and its most cherished fundamental assumptions. At first the Big Bang theorists explained the Hubble red shift with the metaphysical assumption that the galaxies are actually moving apart as the result of an enormous explosion of space, time and matter at the beginning of the universe. The Hubble red shift was proposed to be a simple Doppler shift caused by the outward inertial motion of distant galaxies that increased with distance.

Then in 1965, the Doppler shift explanation of the Hubble red shift lost all credibility when Bell Labs researchers Penzias and Wilson discovered the 2.7°K Cosmic Blackbody Radiation. (Actually they did not really “discover” this radiation since it had been observed by nearly everyone in the preceding decade as the snow and static signal picked up by any television set turned to a non-broadcast channel.) Subsequent measurements of this radiation showed that it had a virtually perfect blackbody radiation distribution curve for a temperature of 2.726°K.

Although Big Bang theorists such as George Gamow and Robert Dicke had predicted that there should be a remnant radiation left over from the Big Bang with a temperature of a few degrees above absolute zero, no one expected it to have a perfect blackbody distribution curve. Starlight radiation was emitted from the blackbody radiation at the star’s surface temperature of several thousand Kelvin. The shape of starlight’s wavelength distribution curve is the same as the blackbody curve, but its intensity is thousands of time less than the blackbody radiation for its wavelength curve. Cosmic rays also have a temperature of about 3°K, but their distribution “curve” is more like a straight line. Blackbody radiation is unique for each temperature. It consists of a single precise mixture of photons with wavelengths spread out over several orders of magnitude. Each photon wavelength must fit the curve at a precise intensity. The maximum intensity photon for a blackbody wavelength/intensity curve is determined by Wein’s displacement law.

If the expansion of the universe was the result of the galaxies all moving apart in different directions, as Hubble first considered, the 2.7°CBR would quickly lose its blackbody characteristics. To illustrate this, let’s consider a past point in time when, according to Big Bang theory, the 2.7° CBR was twice the temperature that it is today: 5.4°K. From this point, if the universe were to double in diameter, its volume would increase by eight times and the energy density in a given volume of space would decrease by eight times. Such an expansion should have no effect on the energy and wavelength of the individual photons but their overall energy density would be reduced to 1/8. In such a case, the total energy of all the photons would be the same, but the temperature of the universe would now be 4.05°K. The most important effect of this expansion would be that the photons would no longer fit within a blackbody radiation distribution curve for this or any other temperature. The maximum intensity wavelength of the photons would still be λ =1 = .000535 m but the maximum intensity wavelength of blackbody radiation for the temperature of 4.05°K is λ = 1.34 = .000716m.

In order for the 2.7°K CBR to maintain a blackbody radiation distribution curve within an expanding universe, it has been necessary for proponents of the Big Bang theory to make the somewhat preposterous and purely ad hoc assumption that the galaxies are inertially stationary and do not emit Doppler shifted photons. Instead, they propose that it is the “space-time” between the galaxies that is expanding. This makes the galaxies appear to grow farther apart even though they are not actually moving with the kind of relative motion that produces Doppler effects. Without any kind of compelling evidence, the Big Bang enthusiasts claim that the Hubble red shifts are caused simply by the photons traveling through a slowly expanding “space-time”. The Hubble red shifted photons are not Doppler shifted but rather acquire their increased wavelengths gradually as they travel through the expanding space between the galaxies. This is a special kind of “space-time” that only effects photons. The stars and the galaxies and the space within them does not expand and they do not grow larger. Elementary particles, atoms, molecules, planets, stars and galaxies are all completely unaffected by this expanding space. It is claimed that this expanding space-time only exists on the outside of galaxies. The Big Bangers claim that, through this convoluted process, individual photons double their wavelength and decrease their energy and momentum by one-half every time the outer-galactic space increases its volume by 8 times.

The primary problem with this assumption is that it violates the most fundamental laws of physics: the conservations of mass, energy and momentum. This assumption requires that as the space within the universe expands, vast amounts of energy and momentum simply disappear into nothingness as photons increase their wavelengths and decrease their energy. In fact, in order to make their theory work, the Big Bang people are forced to conclude that well over 99% of all the energy produced since the universe began has simply vanished without a trace into the so called fabric of expanding space-time.

Experimental physicists have determined, in virtually all experiments ever performed, that energy and momentum are perfectly conserved in all individual interactions. It seems quite curious then, that theoretical physicists would be so quick to ignore experimental physics and claim that the laws for the conservation of energy and momentum have no relevance for the universe at large! In the Living Universe, a photon has eternally constant parameters until it is absorbed or reflected. A photon can cross the universe and not change in the slightest.

The Big Bang theorists never even try to offer a reasonable explanation of how expanding space-time can increase the distance between galaxies but not increase the distance between the stars within galaxies. Nor do they try to explain why the wavelengths of photons increase but not the distance between the proton and electron within the hydrogen atom or why there is no change in the intrinsic wavelengths associated with particles of matter such as the Compton wavelengths of the proton and electron.

How is it possible that the space-time between galaxies constantly expands but the space-time within galaxies remains fixed? Does this mean that photons exist within a special kind of elastic space-time and that matter exists within a completely different rigid and unchanging space-time? In the Living Universe, there is no “space-time”. There is only an empty void through which all photons travel at exactly C while maintaining their mass, energy and wavelengths.

The Antimatter Paradox

In all of the careful observations that have been made locally and within the universe at large, there is no convincing evidence for the existence of any but the tiniest traces of antimatter. All high energy particle experiments show an absolute conservation of charge. Electrons and protons are easily created with high energy particles. However, they are always created with their oppositely charged antiparticles; positrons and antiprotons.

The matter of the universe is essentially made up of electrons and protons. If these were created from “pure energy” during the Big Bang, it is absolutely necessary that equal numbers of positrons and antiprotons be created at the same time. Since these particles are stable and can only be destroyed by annihilating with their antiparticles into photons, where are all of these antimatter particles today? Except for the few electron/positron and proton/antiproton pairs that are created for a brief existence when cosmic rays strike the atmosphere, there is virtually no evidence that anything more than minute quantities of antimatter exist anywhere else in the universe. If anti-stars and anti-galaxies were interspersed about the universe, we could not help but notice the fireworks produced when they collided with stars and galaxies. This would make the gamma ray background far more intense than it is observed to be.

The strongest evidence for the lack of antimatter is that no antimatter has ever been detected in primary cosmic rays. Cosmic Rays consist of photons, protons, electrons and small numbers of the stable nuclei of all the elements. The abundances of the various elements and their isotopes found in cosmic rays are very similar to the elemental abundance as determined from the spectroscopic examination of stars. Since cosmic rays present us with a reasonably accurate picture of the distribution of matter in the universe, the fact that they contain no positrons or antiprotons virtually precludes the existence of these particles in the universe at large.

The standard Big Bang model tries to explain this paradox with a complex, smoke and mirrors kind of a scheme, in which a supposed slight violation in parity causes a few more electrons and protons to be created than positrons and antiprotons. In his book, THE FIRST THREE MINUTES, Steven Weinberg calculates that these extra particles of matter occurred at the rate of about one for every 1,000,000,000 matter-antimatter pairs. His somewhat preposterous idea is that the electrons and protons that exist in the universe today are just the slight residue left over after the vast majority of the original electrons and protons annihilated with their antiparticles into photons. He concludes that all of the protons and electrons that exist in the universe today were somehow created without antiparticles.

Another problem, that seems never to be mentioned in accounts of the Big Bang, is the origin of the electrons. To the extent that measurements can be made, it appears that protons and electrons exist in equal numbers both locally and in the universe at large. Big bang theorists can offer no explanation for this fact. Since it requires far less energy to produce electron-positron pairs than proton-antiproton pairs, it would be expected that the electrons were produced at a later and cooler stage of the Big Bang. Also the parity violation needed to get rid of the positrons would have been quite different than that which eliminated the antiprotons. It is a strange coincidence indeed that left equal numbers of protons and electrons.

The major difficulty with using parity violations and annihilations to get rid of antiprotons and positrons is that there is no evidence of this great primordial annihilation in either the form of the photons produced or of the vast amounts of energy that they would have contained.

According to Weinberg, this annihilation energy would be about one billion times greater than the present mass-energy of the universe or about 1080 Joules. This photon energy would be many orders of magnitude greater than all of the other forms of energy in the universe combined. The paradox is that no one has ever identified any photons or other forms of energy that they could attribute to this enormous annihilation of matter and antimatter. In contrast, there still remains a near perfect record of the 2.7° CBR that was produced a short time later when the residual electrons and protons coupled together to form atoms and then began emitting photons.

In the Living Universe, matter and antimatter have always been with us. Since they were once particle/antiparticle pairs, the proton and electron still exist in equal numbers today. The electron is antimatter to the proton’s matter.

The Energy Paradox

The quantities of energy needed for the dynamics of the Big Bang theory bear almost no relationship to corresponding quantities of energy that we measure in the universe today.

A good round number for the mass of the universe is 1080 protons. This number has been kicking around since Eddington and can be arrived at quite easily by extrapolating galaxy counts. This converts to a total mass-energy for the universe of more than 1071 Joules. The latest measurements for the radius of the visible universe is about 13 billion light years.

The quantities of energy that can be measured from the universe at large, fall into three distinct categories: the 2.7°CBR, starlight and cosmic rays. Each of these contributes about 3°K to the temperature of space here in our corner of the milky way. About 99 % of starlight (excluding sunlight), as well as some substantial portion of cosmic rays come from the Milky Way galaxy. In contrast, the 2.7°CBR, comes from the universe at large and is by far the largest source of energy in the universe. Unlike the other forms of energy, the 2.7°CBR is not a round number but has been measured to have a nearly exact value of 4 x 10-14 Joules per cubic meter. Given a universe with a radius of 13 billion light years and we get a total energy for the 2.7° CBR of just over 1065 Joules.

The Big Bang theory claims that the 2.7° CBR once had a temperature of 3000°K, with a total energy of its photons of 1068 Joules. It then claims that each photon kept its individual identity but between then and now, 99.9% of each photon’s energy and momentum just vanished without a trace.

The Big Bang theorists also claim that when matter and antimatter annihilated near the beginning of the universe, it produced photons with a total energy of 1080 Joules. Even though this is a billion times greater than the present mass-energy of the universe, the Big Bang enthusiasts claim that all of these photons as well as their inherent energy also simply vanished without a trace.

According to Big Bang theory, another source of somewhat measurable energy is the kinetic energy of the receding galaxies in the outer regions of the universe. If we consider a homogeneous universe with a radius of 13 billion light years, then about one-half of its mass (1053kg) would be located in the outer 3 billion light years. If these outer galaxies have an average recessional velocity of 87%C then their kinetic energy would be about 1071 Joules. This energy is still more than a billion times less than the energy that disappeared from the supposed matter-antimatter annihilation that occurred near the beginning of the big bang.

2.7°K Cosmic Blackbody Radiation Paradox

The claim of the Big Bang promoters that the 2.7°CBR has “cooled” from a much hotter temperature is not supported by any evidence and violates the laws for the conservation of mass, space, time and energy.

The 2.7°K Cosmic Blackbody Radiation is usually referred to in the literature by other terms such as the Cosmic Microwave Background or the Cosmic Background Radiation. Such terms are very general and really say very little about the true nature of this phenomenon. It is like describing the Great White Sharks as just a “fish”. To call this radiation “a background” is very misleading. In the universe at large, it has far more energy than all of the other forms of energy combined. Even here on earth, it is more intense than any other form of radiation except sunlight. Here, well within the Milky Way, starlight has about the same energy as the 2.7° CBR. However, the 2.7° CBR is really much more intense because 99% of starlight comes from within our galaxy and the 2.7° CBR comes from the universe at large. If we were to move well away from the Milky Way, starlight would drop to 1% but the 2.7° CBR would remain constant.

The Cosmic Ray flux also has about the same average energy of as the 2.7° CBR but a substantial but uncertain amount of these rays also comes from within the Milky Way. In terms of sheer numbers of photons, there is no contest. At least 99% of all photons in the universe are 2.7° CBR photons.

The Big Bang promoters view the 2.7°K temperature as a random point in time that began shortly after the Big Bang at a temperature of about 3000°K and has been slowly cooling down ever since. As we will see, this assumption violates several of the most cherished conservation laws of physics.

Within the principle of Electron Transformation, the temperature of 2.7°K becomes an unchanging universal constant that is derived from the radiation dynamics of the hydrogen atom. It is determined by the equation (λ = 4ϖao/α). It follows that the temperature of the 2.7° CBR has remained constant from the time it was formed until today.

The most important distinguishing characteristic of the 2.7° CBR is its virtually perfect blackbody distribution curve for the temperature of 2.726°K. The classic blackbody distribution curve is a theoretical construct consisting of a precise mixture of photons with a great many different wavelengths. Each wavelength occupies a specific point on the curve at a specific intensity. It is not possible to create a perfect blackbody curve in the laboratory for any temperature, but over the last thirty years or so, the 2.7° CBR has been measured several times to higher and higher resolutions and each time the results show a more perfect classical blackbody curve.

The Dipole Anisotropy

The only significant variation that has been measured in the 2.7° CBR is its dipole anisotropy. It has been observed that its temperature is slightly greater in the direction of the constellation of Leo and slightly less by the same amount in the opposite direction towards Aquarius. The only reasonable explanation for this is that this is not a defect in the 2.7° CBR spectrum but rather blue and red Doppler shifts caused by our solar system’s absolute motion relative to photon rest. From these two equal and opposite Doppler shifts it is a simple matter to measure that we are moving through absolute space at about 375 km/sec in the direction of Leo. In the Living Universe all motion is absolute and relative to the photon rest of the CBR photon isotropy.

This velocity is so fast that it is hard for a human being to relate to it. The kinetic energy E = MV2/2 of the mass of each human being here on earth is greater than the total energy of the first plutonium atomic bomb to be exploded in New Mexico. We have no sense of the enormous amount of kinetic energy contained within our bodies but if one of us were to strike a large object at absolute photon rest, the heat created at impact would be equal to the thermal energy of the atomic bomb.

When it was first discovered in 1965, the 2.7° CBR was quickly touted as the major evidence in support of the Big Bang theory. However, with a little closer examination, it became quickly apparent that this idea presented several difficult paradoxes that could not be explained within the standard laws of physics.

The Hubble Constant Paradox

For more than fifty years, there has been a substantial amount of astronomical observation dedicated to determining the Hubble constant to ever higher degrees of accuracy. It has been common for researchers to express the value of the Hubble constant in terms of velocity divided by distance. This choice of parameters gives the value a metaphysical character in that it describes an effect that is wished for but hasn’t really been measured. This value implies that the Hubble red shift is either a Doppler shift caused by distant galaxies moving away from us, or a red shift caused by an expansion of the space in between the galaxies. However, all that is really measured is a gradual increase in the wavelengths of photons over great periods of time or distance. There is absolutely no justification for the relativity buffs to arbitrarily label this effect as a Doppler shift or even as a “red shift” without giving the other possible causes their due consideration. In fact, Hubble himself was very reluctant to label his discovery as a Doppler shift. The cause of the Hubble red shift can be explained in at least three different ways.

1. The photons acquired Doppler shifts when they were emitted from the atoms in receding galaxies. This explanation explains the increasing red shifts of distant galaxies, but at the same time it completely fails to account for the near perfect blackbody spectrum of the 2.7°CBR. If the 2.7°CBR photons were emitted from atoms rapidly moving in different directions, they could not maintain a blackbody spectrum. Any general Doppler shifting in an expanding universe would quickly move these photons away from their blackbody distribution curve.

2. The photons gradually increased their wavelengths during the billions of years that they traveled through expanding space-time from their emitting atoms to the earth. This explanation is able to account for the blackbody spectrum of the 2.7°CBR, but only by completely violating the physical laws for the conservation of mass, energy and momentum.

3. In the Living Universe photons emitted by atoms today have shorter wavelengths than they did in the distant past. Very old spectral photons have longer wavelengths than new photons. This explanation for the Hubble shift can not only account the existence of the 2.7° CBR, but it also predicts its exact value. (λ = 4ϖao/α). In the past, when electrons were more massive than they are today, atoms emitted photons with longer wavelengths.

Back to top


Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.